May 192018
 

Today is the birthday (1925) of Malcolm Little who became known to the world as Malcolm X when he became a member of the Nation of Islam, but also took the name el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz after he went to Mecca for the Hajj in 1964, but was, and still is, best known as Malcolm X. For most of his public career he was known as the public voice of the Nation of Islam which, under leader Elijah Muhammad, preached radical racism and separatism, along with violent rebellion when necessary. This is the persona that many people in the United States remember him for. Both his criminal background before the Nation of Islam, and his fundamental change of heart after his break with the Nation of Islam have largely been forgotten, although there are several movies concerning his life that accentuate this period. The best reference point is The Autobiography of Malcolm X which was actually written by Alex Haley based on numerous taped interviews with Malcolm between 1963 and his death in 1965, and published posthumously. It was one of the first books I taught as a brand-new assistant professor in a Freshman Studies program in 1980, and I found it completely mesmerizing. Back in the 1960s (when I was living in Australia), the images we got of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States were limited and extremely one sided. Malcolm’s murder in 1965 seemed like yet another political murder in a bloody decade that included two Kennedys and Martin Luther King along with Malcolm. I had not the remotest idea what it was all about. Reading the Autobiography set me straight in so many ways.

My simple suggestion is that if you want to understand Malcolm X you should read the autobiography. It is crafted, of course. All autobiographies are. In this case it is crafted as much by Haley as by Malcolm himself, but Haley does use Malcolm’s own words and does follow the general thread of his life through his development as a criminal in Boston and New York, after being more or less orphaned in Michigan, how he had something of an awakening in his 6 ½ years in prison which crystallized when he came under the tutelage of Elijah Muhammad, but which he then put behind him when he converted to Sunni Islam and embarked on a much more universalistic call for human rights that set aside the violent separatism of the Nation of Islam. This final period was tragically short, cut short because he was murdered by members of the Nation of Islam, most likely under direct orders from Elijah Muhammad, although the details may always remain shrouded in obscurity. Three members of the Nation of Islam were convicted of the murder, but only one, Talmadge Hayer, admitted guilt. The other two protested innocence and Hayer also refused to point the finger at them. He claimed that other members of the Nation of Islam were involved but initially he would not name them. The police did not re-open the case, when Hayer in the late 1970s filed sworn affidavits naming four men – not those convicted – of being complicit in the murder; nor did the FBI even though they had undercover agents working with the Nation of Islam. It has even been suggested that the FBI was aware of the Nation of Islam’s intent to kill Malcolm but did nothing to prevent it, nor to warn him.

The inherent problem with assessing Malcolm’s philosophy is that it changed dramatically after his journey to Mecca when he became aware of what traditional Islam was about, as opposed to the heavily politicized and contorted version that Elijah Muhammad had created. For most of Malcolm’s public career he was little more than the charismatic mouthpiece (he called himself, the “ventriloquist’s dummy”) for the doctrines of the Nation of Islam. These doctrines included the belief that black people were the original people of the world, and that white people were a race of devils who were created by an evil scientist named Yakub. The Nation of Islam believed that black people were superior to white people, and that the demise of the white race was imminent. When questioned concerning his statements that white people were devils, Malcolm said: “history proves the white man is a devil. Anybody who rapes, and plunders, and enslaves, and steals, and drops hell bombs on people … anybody who does these things is nothing but a devil.”

Malcolm called Islam the “true religion of black mankind” and that Christianity was “the white man’s religion” that had been imposed upon African Americans by their slave-masters. He said that the Nation of Islam followed Islam as it was practiced around the world, but the Nation’s teachings varied from those of other Muslims because they were adapted to the “uniquely pitiful” condition of black people in the United States. He taught that Wallace Fard Muhammad, the founder of the Nation, was Allah incarnate, and that Elijah Muhammad was his Messenger, or Prophet.

While the civil rights movement fought against racial segregation, Malcolm advocated the complete separation of blacks from whites. The Nation of Islam proposed the establishment of a separate country for African Americans in the southern or southwestern United States as an interim measure until African Americans could return to Africa. He also suggested the United States government owed reparations to African Americans for the unpaid labor of their ancestors. He also rejected the civil rights movement’s strategy of nonviolence, advocating instead that black people should defend themselves. In these days he was a vocal opponent of Martin Luther King and his non-violent protests.

In the early 1960s tensions between Malcolm and Elijah Muhammad arose, almost certainly because Elijah Muhammad perceived Malcolm as a threat to his leadership, but also because Malcolm became disillusioned with Elijah Muhammad. In the 1950s Malcolm was by far the most important force for recruitment for the Nation of Islam – by one estimate increasing its membership from 500 to 25,000 in a matter of years. He was responsible, for example, for the conversion of the boxer Cassius Clay, who became Muhammad Ali on conversion, which, in turn inspired more converts. Malcolm’s increased public prominence in relation to his own certainly sparked jealousy in Elijah Muhammad, but Malcolm also began to question Elijah Muhammad’s authority. For one thing, Elijah Muhammad was suspected of improper sexual relations with a number of his secretaries which he ultimately admitted and justified by pointing to the habits of the patriarchs. This did not sit well with Malcolm’s strict ethical code, nor did Elijah Muhammad’s efforts to be conciliatory to Martin Luther King’s movement. After Malcolm made imprudent remarks about the assassination of JFK and was ordered silenced for 90 days by Elijah Muhammad, he split from the Nation of Islam and became an orthodox Sunni Muslim.

In keeping with standard Islamic tradition, in April 1964, with financial help from his half-sister Ella Little-Collins, Malcolm flew to Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, as the start of his Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca obligatory for every Muslim who is able to do so. He was delayed in Jeddah when his U.S. citizenship and inability to speak Arabic caused his status as a Muslim to be questioned. He had received Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam’s book The Eternal Message of Muhammad with his visa approval, and he contacted the author. Azzam’s son arranged for his release and lent him his personal hotel suite. The next morning Malcolm learned that Prince Faisal had designated him as a state guest. Several days later, after completing the Hajj rituals, Malcolm had an audience with the prince. Malcolm later said that seeing Muslims of “all colors, from blue-eyed blonds to black-skinned Africans,” interacting as equals led him to see Islam as a means by which racial problems could be overcome.

This transformed Malcolm was not the man that many people came to know. He was perceived as a traitor by the Nation of Islam, and the mainstream press continued to characterize him as a violent black supremacist. Throughout 1964, as his conflict with the Nation of Islam intensified, Malcolm was repeatedly threatened. In February, a leader of Temple Number Seven ordered the bombing of his car. In March, Elijah Muhammad told Boston minister Louis X (later known as Louis Farrakhan) that “hypocrites like Malcolm should have their heads cut off”; the April 10 edition of Muhammad Speaks featured a cartoon depicting Malcolm’s bouncing, severed head.

On June 8, FBI surveillance recorded a telephone call in which Betty Shabazz was told that her husband was “as good as dead”. Four days later, an FBI informant received a tip that “Malcolm X is going to be bumped off.” (That same month the Nation of Islam sued to reclaim Malcolm’s residence in East Elmhurst, Queens, New York. His family was ordered to vacate but on February 14, 1965‍—‌the night before a hearing on postponing the eviction‍—‌the house was destroyed by fire.) On July 9 Elijah Muhammad aide John Ali (suspected of being an undercover FBI agent) referred to Malcolm X by saying, “Anyone who opposes the Honorable Elijah Muhammad puts their life in jeopardy.” In the December 4 issue of Muhammad Speaks, Louis X wrote that “such a man as Malcolm is worthy of death”. The September 1964 issue of Ebony dramatized Malcolm’s defiance of these threats by publishing a photograph of him holding an M1 carbine while peering out a window.

What might have become of his nascent new movement that was true to Sunni Islam, and opposed to the violent, separatist rhetoric of the Nation of Islam is anyone’s guess. It was cut short by his murder, although certainly its seeds can be seen in the Autobiography which, again, I highly recommend (despite its own limitations).

Malcolm was true to standard Islamic dietary practices in avoiding pork, and was generally opposed to Soul Food, not only because it is rich in pork fat, but because he thought of it as generally unhealthy. By all accounts, his favorite dish was roast chicken, steamed kale, and rice. I scarcely need to remind you that when I roast a chicken I cook it on the highest heat possible – 500˚F/260˚C. I usually cook kale by washing it thoroughly in several changes of water, and then placing it in a pot with only the residual water from washing, and steaming on medium-high heat for about 30 minutes.

Sep 092016
 

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Today is the beginning of this year’s (2016) Hajj (حج‎), the annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca which is a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that they are under obligation to carry out at least once in their lifetimes provided that they are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence (istita’ah). It is one of the five pillars of Islam, alongside Shahadah (canonical creed), Salat (daily prayer), Zakat (charity), and Sawm (fasting).  Hajj is now one of the largest annual gatherings of people in the world.

The pilgrimage occurs from the 8th to 12th (or in some cases 13th) of Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar. Because the Islamic calendar is strictly lunar, the Islamic year is about eleven days shorter than the solar Gregorian year. Therefore, the Gregorian date of Hajj moves back incrementally from year to year.

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The Hajj is associated with the life of Islamic prophet Muhammad from the 7th century, but elements of the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca are considered by Muslims to stretch back thousands of years to the time of Abraham (or Ibrahim in Arabic). During Hajj, pilgrims join various processions of hundreds of thousands of people, who simultaneously converge on Mecca for the week of the Hajj, and perform a series of rituals. In theory each person walks counter-clockwise seven times around the Ka’aba (the cube-shaped building and the direction of prayer for all Muslims worldwide), runs back and forth between the hills of Al-Safa and Al-Marwah, drinks from the Zamzam Well, goes to the plains of Mount Arafat to stand in vigil, spends a night in the plain of Muzdalifa, and performs symbolic stoning of the devil by throwing stones at three pillars. The pilgrims then shave their heads, perform a ritual of animal sacrifice, and celebrate the three-day global festival of Eid al-Adha. Because the pilgrims number in the millions now it is not possible to perform all of these actions as formally specified, so there are acceptable substitutions. For example, pilgrims can buy tokens for food to be distributed to the poor in place of animal sacrifice.

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According to the Qur’an, some components of Hajj trace back to the time of Abraham, conventionally dated around 2000 BCE. By Islamic tradition, Abraham was ordered by God to leave his wife Hagar (his concubine according to Torah) and his son Ishmael alone in the desert of ancient Mecca. In search of water, Hagar desperately ran seven times between the two hills of Safa and Marwah but found none. Returning in despair to Ishmael, she saw the baby scratching the ground with his leg and a water fountain sprang forth underneath his foot. Later, Abraham was commanded to build the Ka’aba (which he did with the help of Ishmael) and to invite people to perform pilgrimage there. The Qur’an refers to these incidents in verses 2:124-127 and 22:27-30. It is said that the archangel Gabriel brought the Black Stone from Heaven to be attached to the Ka’aba.

In pre-Islamic Arabia, a time known as jahiliyyah, the Ka’aba became associated with religious idols. In 630 CE, Muhammad led his followers from Medina to Mecca, cleansed the Ka’aba by destroying all the idols, and then consecrated the building to Allah. In 632 CE, Muhammad performed his only pilgrimage with a large number of followers, and instructed them on the rites of Hajj. It was from this point that Hajj became one of the five pillars of Islam.

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During medieval times, pilgrims would gather in big cities of Syria, Egypt, and Iraq to go to Mecca in groups and caravans comprising tens of thousands of pilgrims, often under state patronage. Hajj caravans, particularly with the advent of the Mamluk Sultanate and its successor, the Ottoman Empire, were escorted by a military force accompanied by physicians under the command of an amir al-hajj. This was done in order to protect the caravan from Bedouin robbers or natural hazards, and to ensure that the pilgrims were supplied with the necessary provisions. Muslim travelers, such as Ibn Jubayr and Ibn Battuta, have recorded detailed accounts of Hajj-travels of medieval times. The caravans followed well-established routes called in Arabic darb al-hajj, lit. “pilgrimage road”, which usually followed ancient routes such as the King’s Highway.

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Until the 20th century the Hajj was generally manageable, although complex and hazardous, in terms of numbers of pilgrims. In the 1920s numbers were actually falling from a peak of about 60,000. But then the trend reversed itself so that there were about 100,000 pilgrims in 1950, and, with the advent of cheap air travel, had reached over 3 million by 2012. The following year the Saudi government limited the number of pilgrims to around 2 million in order to better manage security, transportation, accommodations, sanitation, and food. Even so there have been tragic incidents. In 2015 somewhere between 2,000 and 4,000 pilgrims were killed in a stampede (official reports vary), and such incidents are not uncommon. Thousands have died in stampedes in the past 25 years.

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In April 1964 celebrated civil rights activist, Malcolm X, performed the Hajj after he had left the Nation of Islam and become a Sunni Muslim. In his Autobiography (as dictated to Alex Haley), he recalls how the Nation of Islam had turned his life around in prison where he was serving time for robbery, but he had become jaded with the loose morals and corruption of leader Elijah Muhammad and decided to quit despite becoming a celebrity within the movement. Several Sunnis approached him and, having converted, convinced him to go on the Hajj. This was to be a transformative event for Malcolm.

He flew to Saudi Arabia to start  his Hajj, but was delayed in Jeddah when his U.S. citizenship and inability to speak Arabic caused his status as a Muslim to be questioned. Only confirmed Muslims may enter Mecca. He had received Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam’s book The Eternal Message of Muhammad with his visa approval, and he contacted the author. Azzam’s son arranged for his release and lent him his personal hotel suite. The next morning Malcolm learned that Prince Faisal had designated him as a state guest. Malcolm  later said:

There were tens of thousands of pilgrims, from all over the world. They were of all colors, from blue-eyed blondes to black-skinned Africans. But we were all participating in the same ritual, displaying a spirit of unity and brotherhood that my experiences in America had led me to believe never could exist between the white and the non-white. America needs to understand Islam, because this is the one religion that erases from its society the race problem. You may be shocked by these words coming from me. But on this pilgrimage, what I have seen, and experienced, has forced me to rearrange much of my thought patterns previously held.

Well, that was over 50 years ago. Certainly, civil rights for African-Americans in the U.S. have improved since then, but you can hardly say that these Islamic ideals have prospered. In fact Muslims have joined the growing ranks of despised minorities in the U.S. Malcolm’s experiences should have been a lesson. Instead he was murdered.

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The state of holiness known as Ihram has as one of its tenets the notion of the absolute equality of all pilgrims in the eyes of God. To this end, all male pilgrims wear the same garb: two white seamless cloths, with the one wrapped around the waist reaching below the knee and the other draped over the left shoulder and tied at the right side. Women wear ordinary dress that fulfills the Islamic condition of public dress with hands or face uncovered. There are prescribed ablutions in preparation, and during th pilgrimage participants must refrain from certain activities such as clipping the nails, shaving any part of the body, having sexual relations; using perfumes, damaging plants, killing animals, covering the head (for men) or the face and hands (for women); getting married; or carrying weapons.

Beyond the usual Muslim limitations, there are no general food prohibitions for the days of Hajj as in the month of Ramadan https://www.bookofdaystales.com/ramadan/ , although some of the specific rituals, such as circling the Ka’aba, must be done while fasting. The meat plus rice dishes of South Asia and the Middle East – biryani, pilaf etc. – are great dishes for the Hajj days. They are easy to make in large quantity and, as these photos show, are great for communal eating.

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Al kabsa is perfect because it is a national dish of Saudi Arabia where Mecca is located. No surprise that al kabsa can be made numerous ways. It is a complexly spiced dish and nowadays pre-mixed spices are sold for it. I have the same feeling about this as I do about curry powder – that is, I hate it. Make the mix yourself. Some cooks us whole spices, some ground. I prefer ground, but you can take your pick. My favorite method is to brown some onions, then some chicken. Then add spices and sauté to bring out the flavor. Next add stock and tomato paste (or crushed tomatoes) and simmer until the chicken is cooked (about 30 minutes). Remove the chicken and set aside. Add rice to cook in the chicken broth. When the rice is almost cooked, briefly finish off the chicken by grilling it over charcoal or roasting in a pit oven. Bring the dish together by serving the rice on a large platter, mixing in the chicken, then sprinkling with chopped nuts and raisins.  Serve with sliced cucumbers, yoghurt, and flat bread. Here’s a suggestion for ingredients. Of course you can vary the amount and type of spices. This version is common.

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Al Kabsa

1 chicken cut in 8 pieces
1 tbsp tomato paste
1 L chicken stock
1 onion, peeled and sliced
1 tsp each black pepper, powdered cloves, powdered cardamom, saffron threads, powdered cinnamon, and powdered nutmeg
1 black lime
2 bay leaves
2 cups basmati or long-grained rice
chopped almonds or pistachios
raisins

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