Oct 082013


Today is Independence Day in Croatia. In June 1991 Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia, with the declaration officially taking effect on 8th October of the same year. It still took 4 years of war with Serbia for the sovereignty of the nation to be lasting, however. But eventually Croatia became self governing following 900 years of domination by other states. 8th October is also significant because it was the coronation date in 1076 of Dmitar Zvonimir, who was, for all intents and purposes, the last king of an independent Croatia before it fell under the control of foreign powers.

Ethnic Croats probably arrived in the area of present-day Croatia during the early part of the 7th century. By the 9th century Croatia consisted of two duchies, which combined to become a kingdom under Tomislav in 925. The kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the reigns of kings Peter Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir.

Not much is known about Zvonomir although he holds a prominent symbolic place in contemporary Croatia as a great leader of a free Croatia (hence his coronation date and Independence Day coincide). He was crowned on 8 October 1076 at Solin in the Basilica of Saint Peter and Moses (known today as the Hollow Church, an archeological site) by a representative of Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085). After the Papal legate crowned him, Zvonimir gave the city of Vrana and the Benedictine monastery of Saint Gregory to the Pope as a sign of loyalty. He is also known for building a three-naved basilica near Knin, his capital, and the city is today nicknamed “Zvonimir’s city”. He continued the expansive and pro-Roman policies of his predecessor, maintaining a close alliance with the papacy. He supported Gregory in his fight for supremacy over the Holy Roman Empire, and made many domestic reforms, including the abolition of slavery.

There are several versions of the story of Zvonimir’s death. The most commonly accepted one, recorded by Thomas the Archdeacon, asserts that he died of natural causes.  Another account, from the Presbyter of Doclea, says that on 20 April 1089, desiring to heal the East-West Schism Pope Urban II asked Zvonimir, his strongest Balkan ally, to come to the military aid of Alexios I Komnenos against the Seljuks. Zvonimir convened the Sabor (council of nobles) at Kosovo Polje near Knin that year to mobilize the army on behalf of the pope and the emperor, but the nobility refused him and a rebellion erupted, leading to Zvonimir’s assassination at the hands of his own soldiers. His death marked the collapse of Croatian royal power. A legend arose, known as the Curse of Zvonomir, that as he lay dying he swore that because of this betrayal, Croatia would be ruled by foreigners for 900 years.


When Zvonomir’s successor, Stjepan II, died in 1091 Ladislaus I of Hungary claimed the Croatian crown. Opposition to the claim led to a war and eventual union of Croatia and Hungary in 1102 the terms of which are not clear, but which seemed to have given Hungary some control over Croatia. For the next four centuries, the Kingdom of Croatia saw increasing threat of Ottoman conquest and struggle against the Republic of Venice for control of coastal areas. The Venetians gained control over most of Dalmatia by 1428, with the exception of the city-state of Dubrovnik which became independent. Ottoman conquests led to the 1493 Battle of Krbava field and 1526 Battle of Mohács, both ending in decisive Ottoman victories. In 1527, faced with complete Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. From that point until 1918 Croatia was under Habsburg domination with constant threats from Ottoman Turks, as well as Venetians and the French during the Napoleonic Wars.

In 1918, after World War I, Croatia was included in the unrecognized State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs which seceded from Austria–Hungary and merged into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.  A fascist Croatian puppet state existed during World War II. After the war, Croatia became a founding member and a federal constituent of Second Yugoslavia, a socialist state. In 1991, as part of the breakup of the Soviet Union, Croatia declared independence.

I spent several summers shortly after the Croatian War of Independence on islands off the Dalmatian coast conducting fieldwork on local culture, participating in conferences, and assisting local governments in their efforts to expand tourism.  As such I had considerable opportunity to sample the cooking of the region dominated by seafood from the Adriatic, combined with locally produced olive oil and wines.  Octopus features in many dishes, most especially the signature salata od hobotnice, octopus salad, as well squid in crni rižoto, black risotto, made by boiling the rice in squid ink.  You can make a very quick and cheap version of this by placing a tin of squid in its own ink in with some rice as it is boiling, draining the rice when it is cooked, and then mixing it with the heated squid and ink.

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Although seafood heavily predominates in Dalmatian cooking, there are traditional meat dishes due to the fact that island families often keep goats for milk and sheep for wool and meat.  Here is a recipe for tripice na Dalmatinski (Dalmatian style tripe) I got from a cook on the island of Lastovo. This is one of those recipes that is enjoyed in many countries, each with a slightly different regional twist.  However, the basics are the same: tripe and bacon simmered in a tomato and garlic sauce.  Most of the variations concern the kind of bacon to be used, and, believe me, this makes a considerable difference.   My favorite is pancetta, which is fairly easy to come by in the deli meat section of good supermarkets.  Pancetta is sometimes referred to as Italian bacon, but it is quite different from other kinds of bacon.  The meat is taken only from the belly, so that it is very fatty.  It is cured in salt and spices, but it is not smoked.  When it has finished curing it is rolled in sausage shapes and sliced very thinly.  It adds a much more delicate sweet meaty flavor to tomato sauces than ordinary bacon.  Basically, though, you can use whatever cured pork you favor.  Prosciutto is excellent, as is Canadian or Irish back bacon.  Even if you use plain old supermarket bacon you will still be rewarded with a hearty and robust meal.  Sheep or goat tripe is best for this dish but ox tripe will work.


Tripice Na Dalmatinski


1 ½ lbs fully cooked tripe, cut in bite-sized chunks
6 slices pancetta (or an equivalent amount of cured pork or bacon)
1 onion
1 cup light stock (veal or chicken)
1 tablespoon tomato paste
4 cloves garlic
2 tablespoons chopped parsley
extra virgin olive oil
black pepper


Cut the pancetta slices into 4 or 6 pieces and gently fry them in a little extra virgin olive oil so that the fat is rendered, and the meaty portions are well cooked but not crisp.  Remove the pancetta from the pan and reserve.

Thinly slice the onion and sauté in the oil and bacon fat until soft.  Finely mince the garlic and add to the onions for an extra minute.  Do not let the garlic take on any color.

Heat the stock and dissolve the tomato paste in it, then add this mixture to the garlic and onions.  Bring to a gentle simmer and add the tripe, pancetta, and the chopped parsley, plus a few grinds of black pepper.  Continue to simmer for about 30 minutes.

Serve with boiled new potatoes and crusty bread.

Serves 4.

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