Jul 122018
 

Today is the birthday (1730) of Josiah Wedgwood, well-known manufacturer of pottery and entrepreneur. His expensive items were in much demand from the nobility, while he used emulation effects to market cheaper sets to the rest of society. Every new invention that Wedgwood produced – green glaze, creamware, black basalt and jasper – was quickly copied. Wedgwood is credited as the inventor of modern marketing. He pioneered direct mail, money back guarantees, traveling salesmen, carrying pattern boxes for display, self-service, free delivery, buy one get one free, and illustrated catalogues.

Josiah was born in Burslem in Staffordshire, the eleventh and last child of potter Thomas Wedgwood (d. 1739) and Mary Wedgwood (née Stringer; d. 1766). By the age of 9, he was proving himself to be a skilled potter. He survived a childhood bout of smallpox to serve as an apprentice potter under his eldest brother Thomas Wedgwood. Smallpox left Josiah with a permanently weakened knee, which made him unable to work the foot pedal of a potter’s wheel. As a result, he concentrated from an early age on designing pottery and then making it with the input of other potters. The pottery created in his father’s and brother’s business was inexpensive and low quality, black and mottled in color.

In his early 20s, Wedgwood began working with the most renowned English pottery-maker of his day, Thomas Whieldon, who eventually became his business partner in 1754. Wedgwood also began to study the new science of chemistry, seeking to understand the materials science of fire, clay, and minerals and to develop better clays and glazes for pottery-making. Following an accident in 1762, Wedgwood met Joseph Priestley, who gave Wedgwood advice on the chemistry of the materials involved in pottery. Wedgwood’s experimentation with a wide variety of techniques coincided with the burgeoning of the nearby industrial city of Manchester. Inspired, Wedgwood leased the Ivy Works in the town of Burslem. From 1768 to 1780 he partnered with Thomas Bentley, a potter of sophistication and astute taste. Over the course of the next decade, his experimentation (and a considerable injection of capital from his marriage to a richly endowed distant cousin) transformed the sleepy artisan works into the first true pottery factory. Wedgwood was keenly interested in the scientific advances of his day and it was this interest that underpinned his adoption of its approach and methods to revolutionize the quality of his pottery. His unique glazes began to distinguish his wares from anything else on the market.

By 1763, he was receiving orders from the highest levels of the British nobility, including Queen Charlotte. Wedgwood convinced her to let him name the line of pottery she had purchased “Queen’s Ware,” and trumpeted the royal association in his paperwork and stationery. Anything Wedgwood made for the queen was automatically exhibited before it was delivered. In 1764 he received his first order from abroad. Wedgwood marketed his Queen’s Ware at affordable prices, everywhere in the world British trading ships sailed. In 1767 he wrote, “The demand for this sd. Creamcolour, Alias, Queen Ware, Alias, Ivory, still increases — It is amazing how rapidly the use of it has spread all most [sic] over the whole Globe.”

He first opened a warehouse at Charles Street, Mayfair in London in 1765 and it soon became an integral part of his sales organization. In two years his trade had outgrown his rooms in Grosvenor Square. In 1767 Wedgwood and Bentley drew up an agreement to divide decorative wares between them, the domestic wares being sold on Wedgwood’s behalf. A special display room was built to entice the rich and fashionable. Wedgwood’s in fact had become one of the most fashionable meeting places in London. His employees had to work day and night to satisfy the demand and the crowds of visitors showed no sign of abating. The demand was against the Baroque and Rococo and in favor of simplicity and antiquity. To encourage this outward spread of fashion and to speed it on its way Wedgwood set up warehouses and showrooms in Bath, Liverpool and Dublin in addition to his showrooms at Etruria and in Westminster. Great care was taken in timing the openings, and new goods were held back to increase their effect.

The most important of Wedgwood’s early achievements in vase production was the perfection of the black stoneware body, which he called ‘basalt’. This body could imitate the color and shapes of Etruscan or Greek vases which were being excavated in Italy. In 1769 classical vases were all the rage in London. Around 1771 he started to experiment with Jasperware, but he did not advertise this new product for a couple of years.

Gilding was to prove unpopular at this time, and around 1772 Wedgwood reduced the amount of ‘offensive gilding’ in response to suggestions from Sir William Hamilton. When English society found the uncompromisingly naked figure of the classics ‘too warm’ for their taste, and the ardor of the Greek gods too easily apparent, Wedgwood was quick to cloak their pagan immodesty – gowns for the women and fig leaves for the gods were usually sufficient.

Wedgwood hoped to monopolize the aristocratic market, and thus win for his wares a special distinction, a social cachet which would filter to all classes of society. Wedgwood fully realized the value of such a lead and made the most of it by giving his pottery the names of its patrons: Queensware, Royal Pattern, Russian pattern, Bedford, Oxford and Chetwynd vases for instance. Whether they owned the original or merely possessed a Wedgwood copy mattered little to Wedgwood’s customers. In 1773 they published the first Ornamental Catalogue, an illustrated catalogue of shapes. A plaque, in Wedgwood’s blue pottery style, marking the site of his London showrooms between 1774 and 1795 in Wedgwood Mews, is located at 12, Greek Street, London, W1.

In 1773, Catherine the Great of Imperial Russia ordered the Green Frog Service from Wedgwood, consisting of 952 pieces and over a thousand original paintings, for one of its palaces — the Kekerekeksinen Palace (palace on a frog swamp in Finnish), later known as Chesme Palace. Most of the painting was carried out in Wedgwood’s decorating studio at Chelsea. Its display, Wedgwood thought, ‘would bring an immence (sic) number of People of Fashion into our Rooms. For over a month the fashionable world thronged the rooms and blocked the streets with their carriages.

As a leading industrialist, Wedgwood was a major backer of the Trent and Mersey Canal dug between the River Trent and River Mersey, during which time he became friends with Erasmus Darwin. Later that decade, his burgeoning business caused him to move from the smaller Ivy Works to the newly built Etruria Works, which would run for 180 years. The factory was named after the Etruria district of Italy, where black porcelain dating to Etruscan times was being excavated. Wedgwood found this porcelain inspiring, and his first major commercial success was its duplication with what he called “Black Basalt”. He combined experiments in his art and in the technique of mass production with an interest in improved roads, canals, schools and living conditions. At Etruria, he also built a village for his workers.

Not long after the new works opened, continuing trouble with his smallpox-afflicted knee made the amputation of his right leg necessary. In 1780, his long-time business partner Thomas Bentley died, and Wedgwood turned to Darwin for help in running the business. As a result of the close association that grew up between the Wedgwood and Darwin families, Josiah’s eldest daughter later married Erasmus’ son. One of their sons was Charles Darwin (only one of a large number of famous progeny from the Darwin-Wedgwood line).

To clinch his position as leader of the new fashion he sought out the famous Barberini vase as the final test of his technical skill. Wedgwood’s obsession was to duplicate the Portland Vase, a blue and white glass vase dating to the first century BCE. For three years he worked on the project, eventually producing what he considered a satisfactory copy in 1789. In 1784 Wedgwood was exporting nearly 80% of his total produce. By 1790 he had sold to every city in Europe. To give his customers a greater sense of the rarity of his goods, he strictly limited the number of jaspers on display in his rooms at any given time.

In his later years, Wedgwood became an ardent abolitionist and produced a famous medal with a pleading slave image and the text, “AM I NOT A MAN AND A BROTHER?”

After passing on his company to his sons, Wedgwood died at home, probably of cancer of the jaw, in 1795. He was buried three days later in the parish church of Stoke-on-Trent.

I’ll give you a sort of two-fer in recipes for Josiah Wedgwood (more like a one-point-fiver). Recipes from Staffordshire in the region of the potteries. First there is Staffordshire beef lobby (or simply “lobby’). This was a stew made from the leftovers of Sunday dinner, or made from offal as a cheap meal. It really is completely ordinary, so I will just give you a list of ingredients. Put all the ingredients in a saucepan or crock pot and either slow simmer them on the stove for several hours, or cook overnight in a crock pot. You’ll end up with something akin to Scotch broth or beef-barley soup.

Staffordshire Beef Lobby

Ingredients

1lb stewing steak, cut into small chunks
1 cup pearl barley
1 onion, peeled and diced
4 large potatoes, peeled and diced
1 swede, peeled and diced
4 celery sticks, chopped
4 carrots, peeled and chopped
beef stock

Much more on the money is Staffordshire Yeomanry pudding, which, despite the name, is a two-crust pie with an almond custard filling, and a thin layer of jam. Type of jam is cook’s choice. I prefer raspberry. This pie is not well known outside of Staffordshire, but it ought to be.

Staffordshire Yeomanry Pudding

Ingredients

Shortcrust pastry:

1 ¾ cups/220 gm plain flour
½ cup/113 gm butter
1 tbsp sugar
½ tsp salt
1 egg yolk
1 tbsp cold water

Filling:

½ cup/113 gm cold butter, cut in small pieces
½ cup/100 gm sugar
¼ cup/28 gm ground almonds
½ tsp vanilla extract
¼ tsp salt
2 egg yolks
1 egg white
2 tbsp jam

Instructions

Preheat the oven to 350°F/180°C.

For the pastry: Put the flour and the cold butter, cut into pieces, into a food processor. Pulse several times, until the flour and butter are combined and resemble breadcrumbs. Add in the sugar and salt and pulse again. Add in the egg yolk and water. Pulse again, scraping down the sides of the food processor in between pulses, until the dough just comes together.

Turn out the dough on to a sheet of cling film and wrap it firmly. Place the dough in the refrigerator to chill.

For the filling: In the bowl of your processor or with electric beaters, cream the butter and sugar together until they turn pale yellow. Mix in the vanilla extract, salt, and ground almonds. Next add in the whole egg and one egg yolk and process until the mixture is well combined, scraping down the side of the processor occasionally.

To assemble and cook: Roll out ⅔ of the dough and fit it into a pie plate. Spoon in the jam and spread it around evenly on the bottom. Pour the custard filling on top of the jam and smooth it out.

Roll the remaining piece of dough out in a circle and top the filling with it. Crimp down around the edges to seal the two crusts together. Cut some slits in the top crust. (You can brush the top crust with a little egg wash to improve browning if you wish).

Bake in the preheated oven for about 40 minutes or until the crust is golden.

Cool on a wire rack for at least 20-25 minutes before cutting and serving.

Sep 142015
 

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Today is the birthday (1769) of Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt, Prussian geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of romantic philosophy. Humboldt’s quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography. Humboldt’s advocacy of long-term systematic geophysical measurement laid the foundation for modern geomagnetic and meteorological monitoring. Humboldt is not exactly a household name these days, but in his lifetime he was one of the most famous people alive. What is professionally called “Humboldtian science” is still of major significance, although now it is more commonly referred to simply as “holism.” Humboldt believed in the oneness of all phenomena in the universe, so that it was impossible to understand the parts without understanding the whole, and the place of the parts within that whole. I am a great admirer of that way of thinking.

There is an old saying, “if all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail.” This sums up the great problem of specialization and professionalism. My doctor in New York told me once that if she thought you needed surgery she would send you to a surgeon, but if she thought you did not need surgery she would send you elsewhere. Her point is that all surgeons see medical problems as surgical problems because that is how they are trained. The same holds true for all professions – if you let it. Humboldt thought in exactly the opposite direction: see problems from ALL angles – bring in science, art, philosophy, or whatever else it takes to find an answer. Some of this kind of thinking still exists, but usually only among the brightest and best. Top quantum physicists, for example, read eastern mysticism and see connexions with their own work, whereas the drudge dig narrow channels to move along. We need more thinkers like Humboldt to widen our horizons, so I celebrate him today.

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Humboldt was born in Berlin in 1769 and worked as a Prussian mining official in the 1790s until 1797 when he quit and began collecting scientific knowledge and equipment. His extensive wealth aided his infatuation with the spirit of Romanticism; he amassed an extensive collection of scientific instruments and tools as well as a sizeable library. In 1799 Humboldt, under the protection of King Charles IV of Spain, left for South America and New Spain, toting all of his tools and books. The purpose of the voyage was steeped in Romanticism; Humboldt intended to investigate how the forces of nature interact with one another and find out about the unity of nature. Humboldt returned to Europe in 1804 and was acclaimed a public hero.

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The details and findings of Humboldt’s journey were published in his Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equatorial Regions of the New Continent (30 volumes). He spent the rest of his life mainly in Europe, although he did embark on a short expedition to Siberia and the Russian steppes in 1829. Humboldt’s last works were contained in Kosmos: Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung (“Cosmos: Sketch for a Physical Description of the Universe”). The book mainly described the development of a life-force from the cosmos, but also included the formation of stars from nebular clouds as well as the geography of planets. Humboldt died in 1859, while working on the fifth volume of Kosmos. Humboldt’s novel style has since been called Humboldtian science. Humboldt had the ability to combine the study of precise empirical data with a holistic view of nature and its aesthetically pleasing characteristics. Examining the interconnectedness of vegetation and its environment is one of the most important aspects of Humboldt’s work, an idea labeled as “terrestrial physics,” something that scientists who preceded him, such as Linnaeus, failed to do. Humboldtian science is founded on a principle of “general equilibrium of forces.” General equilibrium is the idea that there are infinite forces in nature that are in constant conflict, yet all forces balance each other out. Humboldt laid the groundwork for future scientific endeavors by establishing the importance of studying organisms and their environment in conjunction.

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Natural history in the eighteenth century was the “nomination of the visible.” Carl Linnaeus was preoccupied with fitting all nature into an all-encompassing taxonomy, fixated on only what was visible. Move towards the turn of the nineteenth century where Immanuel Kant became interested in understanding where species derived from, he was not as concerned with an organism’s physical attributes. Next, Johann Reinhold Forster, one of Humboldt’s future partners, became interested in the study of vegetation as an essential way of understanding nature and its relationship with human society. Proceeding Forster, Karl Willdenow examined plant geography, the distribution of plants and regionality as a whole. All of these pieces in the history before Humboldt help to shape what is defined as Humboldtian science. Humboldt took into account both the outward appearance and inward “meaning” of plant species. His attention to natural aesthetics and empirical data and evidence is what set his scientific work apart from ecologists before him. It was through his holistic approach to science and the study of nature that Humboldt was able to find a web of interconnectedness despite a multitude of extensive differences between different species of organisms.

Humboldt was committed to what he called ‘terrestrial physics.’ Essentially Humboldt’s new scientific approach required a new type of scientist: Humboldtian science demanded a transition from the naturalist to the physicist. Humboldt described how his idea of terrestrial physics differs from traditional “descriptive” natural history when he stated, “[traveling naturalists] have neglected to track the great and constant laws of nature manifested in the rapid flux of phenomena…and to trace the reciprocal interaction of the divided physical forces.” Humboldt did not consider himself an explorer, but rather a scientific traveler, who accurately measured what explorers had reported inaccurately. According to Humboldt, the goal of the terrestrial physicist was to investigate the confluence and interweaving of all physical forces. An incredibly extensive array of precise instrumentation had to be readily available for Humboldt’s terrestrial physicist.

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One concept that is central to Humboldtian science is that of a general equilibrium of forces. Humboldt explains: “The general equilibrium which reigns amongst disturbances and apparent turmoil, is the result of infinite number of mechanical forces and chemical attractions balancing each other out.” Equilibrium is derived from an infinite number of forces acting simultaneously and varying globally. In other words, the lawfulness of nature, according to Humboldt, is a result of infinity and complexity. Humboldtian science promotes the idea that the more forces that are accurately measured over more of the earth’s surface results in a greater understanding of the order of nature.

The voyage to the Americas produced a number of discoveries and developments that help to illustrate Humboldt’s ideas about this equilibrium of forces. Humboldt produced the Tableau physique des Andes (“Physical Profile of the Andes), which aimed at capturing his voyage to the Americas in a single graphic table. Humboldt meant to capture all of the physical forces, from organisms to electricity, in this single table. Among many other complex empirical recordings of elevation-specific data, the table included a detailed biodistribution. This biodistribution mapped the specific distributions of flora and fauna at every elevation level on a mountain.

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Humboldt’s study of plants provides an example of the movement of Humboldtian science away from traditional science. Humboldt’s botany also further illustrates the concept of equilibrium and the Humboldtian ideas of the interrelationship of nature’s elements. Although he was concerned with physical features of plants, he was largely focused on the investigation of underlying connexions and relations among plant organisms. Humboldt worked for years on developing an understanding of plant distributions and geography. The link between the balancing equilibrium of natural forces and organism distribution is evident when Humboldt states:

As in all other phenomena of the physical universe, so in the distribution of organic beings: amidst the apparent disorder which seems to result from the influence of a multitude of local causes, the unchanging law of nature become evident as soon as one surveys an extensive territory, or uses a mass of facts in which the partial disturbances compensate one another.

The study of vegetation and plant geography arose out of new concerns that emerged with Humboldtian science. These new areas of concern in science included integrative processes, invisible connexions, historical development, and natural wholes.

Humboldtian science applied the idea of general equilibrium of forces to the continuities in the history of the generation of the planet. Humboldt saw the history of the earth as a continuous global distribution of such things as heat, vegetation, and rock formations. In order to graphically represent this continuity Humboldt developed the idea of isothermal lines. These isothermal lines functioned in the general balancing of forces in that isothermal lines preserved local peculiarities within a general regularity. According to Humboldtian science, nature’s order and equilibrium emerged “gradually and progressively from laborious observing, averaging, and mapping over increasingly extended areas.”

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Ralph Waldo Emerson once dubbed Humboldt to be “one of those wonders of the world… who appear from time to time, as if to show us the possibilities of the human mind.”

When Humboldt first began his studies of organisms and the environment he claimed that he wanted to “reorganize the general connections that link organic beings and to study the great harmonies of Nature.” He is often considered one of the world’s first genuine ecologists. Humboldt succeeded in developing a comprehensive science that joined the separate branches of natural philosophy under a model of natural order founded on the concept of dynamic equilibrium. Humboldt’s work reached far beyond his personal expeditions and discoveries. People from all across the globe participated in his work. Some such participants included French naval officers, East India Company physicians, Russian provincial administrators, Spanish military commanders, and German diplomats. Furthermore, Charles Darwin carried a copy of Humboldt’s Personal Narrative aboard H.M.S. Beagle and it influenced his observations and theorizing. Humboldt’s projects, particularly those related to natural philosophy, played a significant role in the influx of European money and travelers to Spanish America in increasing numbers in the early 19th century. Sir Edward Sabine, a British scientist, worked on terrestrial magnetism in a manner that was certainly Humboldtian. Also, British scientist George Gabriel Stokes depended heavily on abstract mathematical measurement to deal with error in a precision instrument; certainly Humboldtian science. Maybe the most prominent figure whose work can be considered representative of Humboldtian science, is geologist Charles Lyell. Despite a lack of emphasis on precise measurement in geology at the time, Lyell insisted on precision in a Humboldtian manner.

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On this day let us remember a man whose work showed us how to see the totality which too often these days we miss because the whole is so often torn into parts. If we saw humanity as one unified whole we would not be hung up on racism, nationalism, and xenophobia. If we saw the planet as a unity we would not pollute, pillage and exploit.

Humboldt was a Prussian, a Berliner. “Berliner” has been a word that is the subject of much debate ever since JFK visited the Berlin wall and announced “Ich bin ein Berliner” which, despite the gibes of linguistically challenged morons, means “I am a Berliner.” He was intending to express his unity with the residents of West Berlin who at the time were encircled by the Berlin Wall and his sentence is grammatically correct. But critics unfamiliar with German and Berlin tried to argue that he had said “I am a jelly doughnut” because “Berliner” can also mean a species of doughnut (NOT the jelly doughnut of the U.S.). Oh dear. Wrong in so many ways. Yes, “Berliner” can mean a kind of doughnut but not the way JFK used the term.

A Berliner Pfannkuchen (Berliner for short) is a traditional German pastry similar to a doughnut with no central hole, made from sweet yeast dough traditionally fried in lard (as fish and chips should be), with a marmalade or jam filling and usually topped with icing, powdered sugar or granulated sugar. They are sometimes made with chocolate, champagne, custard, mocha, or advocaat filling, or with no filling at all.

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The yeast dough contains flour, eggs, milk, and butter. The classical Pfannkuchen made in Berlin consists of two halves filled, stuck together and deep-fried in lard, whereby the distinctive bright bulge occurs. The filling is related to the topping: for plum-butter, powdered sugar; for raspberry, strawberry and cherry jam, granulated sugar; for all other fillings, sugar icing, sometimes flavored with rum. Today the filling is usually injected with a large syringe or pastry bag after the dough is fried in one piece.

Today Berliners can be purchased throughout the year, though they were traditionally eaten to celebrate on New Year’s Eve (Silvester) as well as the carnival holidays (Rosenmontag and Fat Tuesday). A common German practical joke is to secretly fill some Berliners with mustard instead of jam and serve them together with regular Berliners without telling anyone. Germans are so amusing !!

The terminology used to refer to this delicacy differs greatly in various areas of Germany. While called Berliner (Ballen) in Northern and Western Germany as well as in Switzerland, the Berliners themselves and residents of Brandenburg, Western Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony know them as Pfannkuchen, which in the rest of Germany generally means pancakes; pancakes are known in Berlin as Eierkuchen (“egg cakes”). JFK was not misunderstood in Berlin.