The Mesoamerican Long Count calendar is a very long, cyclic, base-20 and base-18 calendar used by several Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, most notably the Maya. For this reason, it is sometimes known as the Maya (or Mayan) Long Count calendar, even though it was also used by the Olmec and Aztec.
Using a modified base-20 tally, the Long Count calendar identifies a day by counting the number of days passed since a legendary Mayan creation date that corresponds to August 11, 3114 BCE in the Gregorian calendar. On this day, Raised-up-Sky-Lord caused three stones to be set by associated gods at Lying-Down-Sky, First-Three-Stone-Place. Because the sky still lay on the primordial sea, it was black. The setting of the three stones centered the cosmos which allowed the sky to be raised, revealing the sun. Let there be light!
The long count was broken down into five components: b’ak’tun, k’atun, tun, uinal (sometimes winal), and k’in. As shown in the table below 1 k’in is equivalent to 1 day, 1 uinal is equivalent to 20 days, and so forth. It is essentially a base-20 system except for the fact that 1 tun is only 18 uinal (approximately a solar year).
|Equals||20 k’atun||20 tun||18 uinal||20 kin|
Today’s date (11 August 2013) in long count is 220.127.116.11.13 meaning that today is 13 b’ak’tun 0 k’atun 0 tun 11 uinal 13 k’in since the beginning of the earth in Mayan terms. There has been a certain amount of debate concerning the correlation between the Mayan Long Count and modern calendars, but the system I am using is the most widely accepted. It is known as the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson, or GMT, correlation, not to be confused with GMT meaning Greenwich Mean Time! (see post 10 August). The numbered Long Count was no longer in use by the time the Spanish arrived in the Yucatán Peninsula, although named uinals (months) and numbered k’in (days) were still used in a system known as haab’ that consisted of a year of 18 months each with 20 days. The haab’ year was 360 days long, so 5 days were added each year to bring the calendar in line with the sun. You can use this site to convert Gregorian calendar dates to Mayan Long Count (and haab’ dates).
Long Count dates are written with Mesoamerican numerals, as shown on the pictured table. A dot represents 1, a bar equals 5, and these can be combined. The shell glyph was used to represent the zero.
The Long Count calendar required the use of zero as a place-holder, and represents one of the earliest uses of the zero in history. There was no zero in the Roman numeral system, and that absence seriously hampered computation. Try doing this simple sum in Roman numerals: MCDXCIX – CCCXXVI = ? (The answer is MCLXXIII if you are interested).
On Mayan monuments, the Long Count syntax is complex. The date sequence is given once, at the beginning of the inscription, and opens with the so-called ISIG (Introductory Series Initial Glyph) which reads in translation “the year-count was revered by the patron of [name of the month]”. Next come the 5 digits of the Long Count, followed by the date in two different Short Counts, plus an optional supplementary set of glyphs containing lunar data for the day, such as the phase of the moon. The text then continues with whatever activity occurred on that date.
The earliest contemporaneous Long Count inscription yet discovered is on Stela 2 at Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas, Mexico, showing a date of 36 BCE, although Stela 2 from Takalik Abaj, Guatemala might be earlier. Takalik Abaj Stela 2’s highly battered Long Count inscription shows a 7 bak’tun, followed by a k’atun with a tentative 6 coefficient, but it could also be 11 or 16, giving the range of possible dates as falling between 236 and 19 BCE.
Amateur misunderstanding of the Maya Long Count led to ridiculous prophecies of the world ending on 21 December 2012, the date marking the completion of 12 b’ak’tun. Serious Mayanist scholars dismissed these nonsensical predictions on two grounds. First, there is no hint whatsoever in Mayan records that the end of a b’ak’tun cycle portends anything good or bad. It is simply the end of a cycle and an excuse for a party much like New Year’s or the turning of a millennium in the West. Second, 2012 marks the end of only 12 b’ak’tun. There are 7 b’ak’tun more to go before the long count reaches 0.0.0.0.0. That’s about 2761 years from now. Check back in with me then.
As is well known, the encounter of Europeans with Mesoamerican cultures, especially the Maya and Aztec, vastly diversified fruits and vegetables available. ALL modern cuisines worldwide rely on vegetables domesticated in the New World. The Mayans gave the West corn, tomatoes, black beans, chiles, avocados, sweet potatoes, squash, papaya, chocolate, and vanilla. Here’s a dish I created using only indigenous Mayan ingredients. The annatto adds a fine earthy flavor. Adjust the chiles to suit your abilities with hot stuff. Removing the seeds will reduce the heat. You can use store bought corn tortillas of course, but fresh are best. You will need a tortilla press to make them yourself. I’ve never had much luck with a rolling pin because the dough is so crumbly.
Black Beans in Tortilla Wrappers
Black Bean Filling
1 cup dried black beans
½ cup fresh corn kernels
1 tbsp vegetable oil
2 finely chopped habanero chilis (or other hot chiles)
1 chopped green bell pepper
1 tsp powdered annatto
2 cups water
chopped tomato and avocado for topping
Soak the beans overnight, inspecting them to be sure there are no foreign materials such as small stones.
Heat the oil over medium high heat in a heavy saucepan. Add the chile, bell pepper, annatto, and salt to taste, and sauté briefly.
Add the beans and continue to sauté for 2 minutes.
Add the water and bring to a gentle simmer. Cook covered for about 40 minutes and add the corn to the pot. Cook for another 20 minutes, or until the beans are soft. When the beans and corn are cooked, the cooking liquid should be reduced to a thick coating. Keep warm.
Yield: about 2½ cups
2 cups (500 ml) masa harina (treated corn flour)
1 ½ cups (400 ml) warm water
pinch of salt
Slowly mix the corn flour and salt with the water until you have a soft, smooth dough. Don’t make it too moist. Cover the dough with a damp cloth.
Pinch off a golf ball sized piece of dough, flatten it, place it between two squares of waxed paper, and squeeze it flat in a tortilla press.
Heat an ungreased heavy skillet or non-stick frying pan over medium heat.
Gently remove the tortilla from the waxed paper with wet hands and place it in the skillet. Cook for about a minute per side. You are looking for the tortilla to brown and take on some speckled darker spots.
Remove the tortilla and start a stack on a plate covered with a damp cloth. Repeat.
Yield: about 15 tortillas
Place a tortilla on the palm of your hand.
Place 2 tablespoons of beans in a line down the middle. Top with chopped tomatoes and avocadoes.
Roll up and eat.
If you want to be fancy you can roll them up in the kitchen and place them on a serving plate. But, even so, you really must eat them with your hands. If you like you can also add a fresh salsa made of tomatoes, chiles, and bell pepper pulsed in a blender or food processor.