Mar 282017
 

According to the anonymous MS De Pascha Computus (How to Calculate Easter’s Date), written c. 243 CE by someone in north Africa (now called pseudo-Cyprian), the Sun and Moon were created by God on March 28th. So . . . Happy Birthday Sun and Moon.  Follow me as I map out a twisted trail of suspect beliefs and tortured logic.  Throughout Western history a great deal has hinged on how you calculate the date of Easter, not least being the enormous Gregorian calendar reform.  The simple statement that Easter is the first Sunday after the first full moon after the March equinox barely scratches the surface. Moderns think of events such as the equinox and a full moon as astronomically observable events.  The ancients thought otherwise. These events were calendrically fixed by complex tables, which meant that the calendar had to be trustworthy, otherwise resultant computations would be off.  Our first mistake in trying to think like the ancients is to believe that they looked at the sun, moon, planets, and stars to determine dates.  WRONG!!!  If, for example, you think that your sign of the zodiac is determined by what constellation the sun is in on your birthday, think again. Your sign of the zodiac is determined by fixed charts, not by actual observation (at least according to classical methods).

From pre-Christian times March 25th was fixed as the Vernal Equinox in the Northern Hemisphere in many (not all) cultures. Many of these cultures treated the equinox as the anniversary of the day of creation of the universe: all in one go.  De Pascha Computus follows this basic idea but uses the Genesis chronology.  Hence, the MS treats March 25th as the date of the first day of creation: the day of the creation of Light. March 28th is, therefore, the anniversary of the fourth day of creation, the date on which God created the Sun and the Moon. All kinds of wobbly logic follows on from here.

Some early Christian scholars equated the March 25th anniversary of the creation of Light with the conception of Jesus.  God’s pretty orderly, don’t you know – he’d want his son conceived on an important anniversary. If you calculate 9 months from the conception you wind up with December 25th as his date of birth.  What a surprise !!! Of course, I am fudging a lot of information and debates during the 2nd to 4th centuries. You’ll have to read a lot more to get the full story of why the Church settled on December 25th as Christmas.  What I can say unequivocally is that the Church did not adopt pagan traditions such as Sol Invictus or Saturnalia for the date of Christmas: quite the opposite. The early Church wanted to distance itself from non-Christian dating systems, including the Jewish calendar. Easter quite deliberately does not coincide with Passover even though the gospels are clear that Jesus was crucified (within a day) of when the Passover occurred. John places the crucifixion on the day that the Passover lambs were slaughtered for theological reasons.  The other gospels place the crucifixion on the day after the lambs were slaughtered. No matter. Without question, the first Easter happened in the Passover season, but the early Church was not interested in making Easter coincide with Passover in perpetuity. They were bent on divorcing Christianity from Judaism, so historical dates were an irrelevance.

One piece that came out of all of this was that the early Church associated Jesus with the Sun. In Malachi 4:2 the prophesied Messiah is called the “Sun of righteousness” and De Pascha Computus then suggests that if Jesus is the Sun he must have been born on the anniversary of the creation of the Sun. Hence for that author, and some others, Christmas should be on March 28th “O the splendid and divine providence of the Lord, that on that day, the very day, on which the sun was made, the 28 March, a Wednesday, Christ should be born. For this reason Malachi the prophet, speaking about him to the people, fittingly said, ‘Unto you shall the sun of righteousness arise, and healing is in his wings.'”

Confused yet?  Don’t worry. Ecclesiastical logic has always been strained, to put it mildly. I’m just messing with you.  What is pretty basic, however, is that the Sun and Moon, whether they were created on this date or not, are almost universally regarded as complementary opposites of one sort or another: Male/Female, Day/Night, Fire/Water, War/Peace . . . and so on. The one that leads to my recipe for today is Gold/Silver. This rather disregards the fact that according to modern physics the Sun is white (how else would it produce white light?). According to the testimony of our eyes the Sun is yellow (but bear in mind that the Moon is white because it reflects the light of the Sun. If the Sun were yellow the moon would be also).  My recipe is going to be about as far from the Christian West as you can get: 扬州炒饭 – Yangzhou Chao Fan – or Yangzhou-style egg fried rice, often known in China as gold over silver, or silver over gold fried rice, depending on how the eggs are cooked. In Western Chinese restaurants this dish is often called “special fried rice” and can vary enormously in ingredients and quality. Most I have tried are far from “special.” In China, Yangzhou Chao Fan comes towards the end of the meal as a grand finale, after soup and before the fruit (or sweet morsel). It is meant to be eaten by itself and is a BIG DEAL.  If you are fortunate enough to be visiting China and are invited to a banquet, beware.  You may be stunned by course after glorious course, but don’t fill up on them. When the Yangzhou Chao Fan appears at the end you are expected to praise it lavishly and eat heartily. You’ll be amazed at how much rice the Chinese can pack away. It’s a great insult to the host to simply pick at the dish because you’ve already gorged yourself.  As ever, I will give a simple caution: you will not replicate Chinese cooking in the West. Even if you own a wok your stove is not hot enough, trust me. Chinese stoves are like acetylene torches, and need to be for proper stir frying.  The good news is that the ingredients are easy to come by in the West. The recipe calls for cooked rice. This does not mean leftover rice you have hanging around. Cook the rice on the morning you are making the dish, drain it and cool it quickly to room temperature. Many, many variants exist, especially concerning ingredients.  My recipe is fairly traditional (and basic).

You have to decide, before you begin making this dish, whether you want the eggs to be ‘silver over gold’ or ‘gold over silver.’  In the first case you cook the eggs at the beginning, break them up, reserve them, and then add them to the fried rice at the end (the way I do it). In the second case you add the beaten egg to the hot rice and other ingredients when they are cooking, breaking up the eggs as they solidify.  Either way the eggs should be part yellow and part white which means that you should beat them only lightly so that the yolk and white are a little distinct. Master Chinese chefs can crack an egg into the rice as it cooks (without beating it first) and it turns out perfect. When I do it this way the dish is never even close to perfect.

Yangzhou Chao Fan

Ingredients

6 cups cold cooked rice
3 eggs, very lightly beaten
½ cup Chinese BBQ pork or Chinese sausage, finely diced
½  cup  raw small shrimp (or prawns)
4 spring onions, finely sliced, including the green parts
vegetable oil

Instructions

Heat your wok on high heat, swirl in a little vegetable oil, let it heat, then add the eggs. Let them set quickly and break them up into small fragments. Set aside.

Heat the wok again, swirl in a little more oil if needed, and add the pork, shrimp, and onions. Cook for a minute or so, then add in the rice. Whilst stirring and tossing all the time, heat everything through. At the end add the egg fragments, mix thoroughly and serve very hot – immediately.

Jul 232015
 

mab1

Today is the birthday (1864) of Apolinario Mabini y Maranan, a Filipino revolutionary leader, educator, lawyer, and statesman who served as the first Prime Minister of the Philippines, serving first under the Revolutionary Government, and then under the First Philippine Republic. Mabini performed all his revolutionary and governmental activities despite having lost the use of both his legs to polio shortly before the Philippine Revolution of 1896.

Mabini’s role in Philippine history saw him confronting first Spanish Colonial Rule in the opening days of the Philippine Revolution, and then American colonial rule in the days of the Philippine–American War. The latter saw Mabini captured and exiled to Guam by American colonial authorities, allowed to return only two months before his eventual death in May, 1903.

I want to make a polemical point here before I continue. Among the many reasons I write this blog is to draw attention to people and events that don’t make it into standard Western textbooks. When I mention to people that I am Argentino, the most common response is to the effect that Argentina is good at football. Some sing a snatch from “Don’t cry for me Argentina” but they rarely know who Evita was or why she was important. The Philippines suffer the same fate on the international stage. Among other things the colonization of the Philippines in the 16th century by the Spanish played a vital role in Euro-Chinese relations for several hundred years. You’d never know this reading a Western history textbook.

mab2

Mabini was born on July 23, 1864 in Barangay Talaga in Tanauan, Batangas. He was the second of eight children of Dionisia Maranan, a vendor in the Tanauan market, and Inocencio Mabini, an illiterate peasant. Mabini began informal studies under the guidance of Maestro Agustin Santiesteban III his mother (being illiterate does not make you stupid). Because he demonstrated uncommon intelligence, he was transferred to a regular school owned by Simplicio Avelino, where he worked as a houseboy, and also took odd jobs from a local tailor – all in exchange for board and lodging. He later transferred to a school conducted by Fray Valerio Malabanan, whose fame as an educator merited a mention in José Rizal’s novel El Filibusterismo.

In 1881 Mabini received a scholarship to go to the Colegio de San Juan de Letran in Manila. An anecdote about his stay there says that a professor decided to pick on him because his shabby clothing clearly showed he was poor. Mabini amazed the professor by answering a series of very difficult questions with ease. His studies at Letran were periodically interrupted by a chronic lack of funds, and he earned money for his board and lodging by teaching children.

Mabini’s mother had wanted him to take up the priesthood, but his desire to defend the poor made him decide to take up law instead.He wrote:

I am convinced that the true minister of God is not one who wears a cassock, but everyone who proclaims His glory by good works of service to the greatest possible number of His creatures.

mab4

A year after receiving his Bachilles en Artes with highest honors and the title Professor of Latin from Letran, he moved on to the University of Santo Tomas, where he received his law degree in 1894.Comparing Mabini’s generation of Filipino intellectuals to the previous one of José Rizal and the other members of the propagandista movement, journalist and artist Nick Joaquin describes Mabini’s generation as the next iteration in the evolution of Filipino intellectual development:

Europe had been a necessary catalyst for the generation of Rizal. By the time of Mabini, the Filipino intellectual had advanced beyond the need for enlightenment abroad[….] The very point of Mabini’s accomplishment is that all his schooling, all his training, was done right here in his own country. The argument of Rizal’s generation was that Filipinos were not yet ready for self-government because they had too little education and could not aspire for more in their own country. The evidence of Mabini’s generation was that it could handle the affairs of government with only the education it had acquired locally. It no longer needed Europe; it had imbibed all it needed of Europe.

Mabini joined the Guild of Lawyers after graduation, but he did not choose to practice law in a professional capacity. He did not set up his own law office, and instead continued to work in the office of a notary public. Instead, Mabini put his knowledge of law to much use during the days of the Philippine Revolution and the Filipino-American war. Joaquin notes that all his contributions to Philippine history somehow involved the law:

His was a legal mind. He was interested in law as an idea, as an ideal[…] whenever he appears in our history he is arguing a question of legality.

Mabini joined the fraternity of Freemasonry in September 1892, affiliating with lodge Balagtas, and taking on the name “Katabay”. The following year, 1893, Mabini became a member of La Liga Filipina, which was being resuscitated after the arrest of its founder José Rizal in 1892. Mabini was made secretary of its new Supreme Council This was Mabini’s first time to join an explicitly patriotic organization.

mab3

Mabini, who advocated for the reformist movement, pushed for the organization to continue its goals of supporting La Solidaridad and the reforms it advocated. When more revolutionary members of La Liga indicated that they did not think the reform movement was getting results and wanted to more openly support revolution, La Liga Filipina split into two factions: the moderate Cuerpo de Compromisarios, which wanted simply to continue to support the revolution, and the explicitly revolutionary Katipunan.

When José Rizal, part of La Liga Filipina, was executed in December that year, however, Mabini changed his mind and gave the revolution his wholehearted support. Mabini was struck by polio in 1895, and the disease gradually incapacitated him until January 1896, when he finally lost the use of both his legs. When the plans of the Katipunan were discovered by Spanish authorities, and the first active phase of the 1896 Philippine Revolution began in earnest, Mabini, still ill, was arrested along with numerous other members of La Liga.

Thirteen patriots arrested in Cavite were tried and eventually executed, earning them the title of “Thirteen Martyrs of Cavite”. José Rizal himself was accused of being party to the revolution, and would eventually be executed in December that year. When the Spanish authorities saw that Mabini was paralyzed, however, they decided to release him.

Sent to the hospital after his arrest, Mabini remained in ill health for a considerable time. He was seeking the curative properties of the hot springs in Los Baños, Laguna in 1898 when Emilio Aguinaldo sent for him, asking him to serve as advisor to the revolution. During this convalescent period, Mabini wrote the pamphlets “El Verdadero Decalogo” and “Ordenanzas de la Revolucion.” Aguinaldo was impressed by these works and by Mabini’s role as a leading figure in La Liga Filipina, and made arrangements for Mabini to be brought from Los Baños to Kawit, Cavite. It took hundreds of men taking turns carrying his hammock to portage Mabini to Kawit.

mab7

He continued to serve as the chief adviser for General Aguinaldo after the Philippine Declaration of Independence on June 12. He drafted decrees and edited the first ever constitution in Asia (the Malolos Constitution) for the First Philippine Republic, including the framework of the revolutionary government which was implemented in Malolos in 1899.

Mabini was appointed prime minister and was also foreign minister of the newly independent dictatorial government of Aguinaldo on January 2, 1899. Eventually, the government declared the first Philippine republic in appropriate ceremonies on January 23, 1899. Mabini then led the first cabinet of the republic.

Mabini found himself in the center of the most critical period in the new country’s history, grappling with problems until then unimagined. Most notable of these were his negotiations with the United States, which began on March 6, 1899. The United States and the Philippine Republic were embroiled in extremely contentious and eventually violent confrontations. During the negotiations for peace, the U.S. offered Mabini autonomy for Aguinaldo’s new government, but the talks failed because Mabini’s conditions included a ceasefire, which was rejected. Mabini negotiated once again, seeking for an armistice instead, but the talks failed yet again. Eventually, feeling that the Americans were not negotiating in good faith, he forswore the Americans and supported war. He resigned from government on May 7, 1899.

The Philippine–American War saw Mabini taken more seriously as a threat by the Americans than he was under the Spanish: F. Sionil José writes:

The Spaniards underestimated Mabini primarily because he was a cripple. Had they known of his intellectual perspicacity, they would have killed him earlier. The Americans did not. They were aware of his superior intelligence, his tenacity when he faced them in negotiations for autonomy and ceasefire.

mab6

On December 10, 1899, he was captured by U.S. troops at Cuyapo, Nueva Ecija, but granted leave to meet with W.H. Taft.In 1901, he was exiled to Guam, along with scores of revolutionaries, whom Americans referred to as ‘insurrectos’ and who refused to swear fealty to imperialist America. When Brig. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr. was asked by the U.S. Senate to explain why Mabini had to be deported, he cabled:

Mabini deported: a most active agitator; persistently and defiantly refusing amnesty, and maintaining correspondence with insurgents in the field while living in Manila, Luzon.

Mabini returned home to the Philippines in February 1903 after agreeing to take the oath of allegiance to the United States on February 26, 1903 before the Collector of Customs. On the day he sailed, he issued this statement to the press:

After two long years I am returning, so to speak, completely disoriented and, what is worse, almost overcome by disease and sufferings. Nevertheless, I hope, after some time of rest and study, still to be of some use, unless I have returned to the Islands for the sole purpose of dying.

To the chagrin of the American colonial officials, however, Mabini resumed his work of agitating for independence for the Philippines soon after he was back home from exile. Not long after his return, Mabini died of cholera in Manila on May 13, 1903 at the age of 38.  He is often known now by two epithets — The Brains of the Revolution and The Sublime Paralytic.

Rice is a staple in the Philippines, of course, and I have chosen sinangag (garlic fried rice) as my recipe du jour for several reasons. First because I am a big fan of properly cooked fried rice (which I get in abundance at street stalls in China). Second, because it is, among other things, a cheap peasant dish indicative of Mabini’s roots. Third, because I like garlic. In fact, just today I bought 50 cloves of peeled garlic (for about 50 cents) and have been chucking it in everything. You are best using non-sticky long grained rice, jasmine rice is excellent, that was cooked the day before. Sinangag is often served as a breakfast dish, either on its own or with some meat and vegetables. It can also be used as a side dish for regular meals. Kissing immediately afterwards is not recommended.

mab5

Sinangag

Heat 2 tablespoons of vegetable oil in a wok over medium-low heat.

Add 10 cloves of garlic, thinly sliced, and cook slowly. If the oil is too hot the garlic will become bitter. Let it sauté, stirring now and again, until it is golden brown.

Turn up the heat and add 4 cups of day-old, cooked rice. Fry stirring constantly until the rice is heated through and the garlic flavored oil has coated the rice grains.

Serve immediately.