Jan 292018
 

Today is the birthday (1850) of Lawrence Hargrave, an English-born, Australian engineer, explorer, astronomer, inventor and aeronautical pioneer who tends to be forgotten as a  pioneer of aviation and other technologies we now take for granted. Hargrave was born in Greenwich in England, the second son of John Fletcher Hargrave (later Attorney-General of NSW) and was educated at Queen Elizabeth’s Grammar School, Kirkby Lonsdale, Westmorland. He emigrated to Australia with his family, arriving in Sydney on 5 November 1865 on the La Hogue. He accepted a place on the Ellesmere and circumnavigated Australia. Although he had shown ability in mathematics at his English school he failed the matriculation examination and in 1867 took an engineering apprenticeship with the Australasian Steam Navigation Company in Sydney. He later found the experience of great use in constructing his models.

In 1872, as an engineer, he sailed on the Maria on a voyage to New Guinea but the ship was wrecked. In 1875, he again sailed as an engineer on William John Macleay’s expedition to the Gulf of Papua. From October 1875 to January 1876 he explored the hinterland of Port Moresby under Octavius Stone, and in April 1876 went on another expedition under Luigi D’Albertis for over 400 miles up the Fly River on the SS Ellengowan. In 1877 he was an inspector for the newly developing pearling industry for Parbury Lamb and Co. He returned to Sydney, joined the Royal Society of New South Wales in 1877, and in 1878 became an assistant astronomical observer at Sydney Observatory. He held this position for about five years, retired in 1883, and gave the rest of his life to research work.

Hargrave had been interested in experiments of all kinds from an early age, particularly those with aircraft. When his father died in 1885, and Hargrave came into his inheritance, he resigned from the observatory to concentrate on full-time research. and for a time gave particular attention to the flight of birds. He chose to live and experiment with his flying machines in Stanwell Park, a place which offers excellent wind and hang conditions and nowadays is the most famous hang gliding and paragliding venue in Australia.

In his career, Hargrave invented many devices, but never applied for a patent on any of them. He needed the money but he was a passionate believer in scientific communication as a key to furthering progress. As he wrote in 1893:

Workers must root out the idea [that] by keeping the results of their labours to themselves[,] a fortune will be assured to them. Patent fees are much wasted money. The flying machine of the future will not be born fully fledged and capable of a flight for 1000 miles or so. Like everything else it must be evolved gradually. The first difficulty is to get a thing that will fly at all. When this is made, a full description should be published as an aid to others. Excellence of design and workmanship will always defy competition.

Among many, three of Hargrave’s inventions were particularly significant:

  •  Study of curved aerofoils, particularly designs with a thicker leading edge.
  •  The box kite (1893), which greatly improved the lift to drag ratio of early gliders.
  •   Work on the rotary engine, which powered many early aircraft until about 1920.

He made endless experiments and numerous models, and communicated his conclusions in a series of papers to the Royal Society of New South Wales. Of great significance to those pioneers working toward powered flight, Hargrave successfully lifted himself off the ground under a train of four of his box kites at Stanwell Park Beach on 12 November 1894. Aided by James Swain, the caretaker at his property, the kite line was moored via a spring balance to two sandbags (see image). Hargrave carried an anemometer and clinometer aloft to measure windspeed and the angle of the kite line. He rose 16 feet in a wind speed of 21 mph. This experiment was widely reported and established the box kite as a stable aerial platform.

Hargrave claimed that:

The particular steps gained are the demonstration that an extremely simple apparatus can be made, carried about, and flown by one man; and that a safe means of making an ascent with a flying machine, of trying the same without any risk of accident, and descending, is now at the service of any experimenter who wishes to use it.

This was seen by Abbott Lawrence Rotch of the meteorological observatory at Harvard University who constructed a kite from the particulars in Engineering. A modification was adopted by the weather bureau of the United States and the use of box-kites for meteorological observations became widespread. The principle was applied to gliders, and in October 1906 Alberto Santos-Dumont used the box-kite principle in his aeroplane to make his first flight. Until 1909 the box-kite aeroplane was the usual type in Europe.

Hargrave had not confined himself to the problem of constructing a heavier-than-air machine that would fly, but had given considerable effort to the means of propulsion as well. In 1889 he invented a rotary engine which appears to have attracted so little notice that its principle had to be discovered again by the Seguin brothers in 1908. This form of engine was much used in early aviation until it was superseded by later inventions. His development of the rotary engine was frustrated by the weight of materials and quality of machining available at the time, and he was unable to get sufficient power from his engines to build an independent flying machine.

Hargrave’s work inspired Alexander Graham Bell to begin his own experiments with a series of tetrahedral kite designs. However, Hargrave’s work, like that of many another pioneer, was not sufficiently appreciated during his lifetime. His models were offered to the premier of New South Wales as a gift to the state, and it is not clear what really happened. There appears to have been delays in accepting the models, and in the meantime they were given to some visiting German professors who handed them to the Munich museum. Hargrave also conducted experiments with a hydroplane, the application of the gyroscopic principle to a “one-wheeled car,” and with “wave propelled vessels.”

Hargrave’s only son Geoffrey was killed at the Battle of Gallipoli in May 1915 during World War I. Hargrave was operated on for appendicitis but suffered peritonitis afterwards and died in July 1915. He was interred in Waverley Cemetery on the cliffs overlooking the open ocean.

Hargrave modest, unassuming and unselfish, and always refused to patent his inventions. He was anxious only that he might succeed in adding to the sum of human knowledge. Few took note of him in his day, and he tends to be forgotten when it comes to acknowledging early contributions to aeronautics.  Richard Threlfall in his presidential address to the Royal Society of New South Wales in May 1895, spoke of his “strong conviction of the importance of the work which Mr Hargrave has done towards solving the problem of artificial flight.” Threlfall called Hargrave the “inventor of human flight” and later said that he “probably did as much to bring about the accomplishment of dynamic flight as any other single individual.”

I am going to turn to Westmorland in the NW of England, where Hargrave went to school as a boy before migrating to Australia, for my commemorative recipe. Westmorland pepper cake was popular in the 19th century but then was forgotten for most of the 20thcentury. Interest in it has been revived, just as interest in Hargrave’s work in aeronautics is once again coming to the fore. You may need to experiment with the quantity of pepper. It must be freshly ground or cracked black pepper because the complex flavor must come through. The ginger and cloves enhance the flavor of the pepper, so you will need to experiment with proportions so that the pepper is the star.

Westmorland Pepper Cake

Ingredients

3 oz raisins
3 oz dried currants
4 oz sugar
3 oz butter
5 fl oz water
8 oz self-raising flour
½ tsp ground ginger
¼ tsp ground cloves
½ tsp freshly ground black pepper
4 tbsp milk
1 egg, beaten

Instructions

Preheat the oven to 350°F.

Grease a 7-inch cake tin or small loaf pan, and line the bottom with parchment paper. Grease the parchment paper.

Put the fruit, sugar, butter, and water in a saucepan and bring to a boil, turn down the heat and simmer for 10 minutes. Turn off the heat and let the mixture cool until it is warm, but above room temperature.

Put the flour, spices, and pepper in a bowl and stir to blend. Gently stir in the fruit mixture, milk and the egg. Mix thoroughly without beating.

Turn the mixture into the prepared pan and bake for about 50 minutes or until firm to the touch, or a toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean.

Let cool for a few minutes, and then turn out on a wire rack to cool completely. When cool, dust with powdered sugar.

Jun 042017
 

On this date in 1783 Joseph-Michel Montgolfier (26 August 1740 – 26 June 1810) and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier (6 January 1745 – 2 August 1799) gave their first public demonstration of their Montgolfière (hot air balloon), also known as a globe aérostatique in their home town of Annonay before assembled dignitaries. Their first flight was not piloted and did not contain a payload of any sort.

Joseph was the first of the two brothers to contemplate building a flying machine as early as 1782 when he observed laundry drying over a fire incidentally form pockets that billowed upwards. He made his first definitive experiments in November 1782 while living in the city of Avignon. He reported some years later that he was watching a fire one evening while contemplating one of the great military issues of the day—an assault on the fortress of Gibraltar, which had proved impregnable from both sea and land. He wondered about the possibility of an air assault using troops lifted by the same force that was lifting the embers from the fire. He believed that within the smoke was a special gas, which he called Montgolfier Gas, with a property he called levity.

As a result of these musings, Joseph set about building a box-like chamber 1×1×1.3 m (3 ft by 3 ft (0.91 m) by 4 ft) out of very thin wood, and covering the sides and top with lightweight taffeta cloth. He crumpled and lit some paper under the bottom of the box. The box quickly lifted off its stand and hit the ceiling. Joseph then recruited his brother writing, “Get in a supply of taffeta and of cordage, quickly, and you will see one of the most astonishing sights in the world.” The two brothers then set about building a similar device, scaled up in length, width, and height by 3 (that is, 33 or 27 times greater in volume). The lifting force was so great that they lost control of the craft on its very first test flight on 14 December 1782. The device floated nearly two kilometers (about 1.2 mi). It was destroyed after landing by the “indiscretion” of passersby.

The brothers decided to make a public demonstration of a balloon to establish their claim to its invention. They constructed a globe-shaped balloon of sackcloth with three thin layers of paper inside. The envelope could contain nearly 790 m³ (28,000 cubic feet) of air and weighed 225 kg (500 lb). It was constructed of four pieces (the dome and three lateral bands) and held together by 1,800 buttons. A reinforcing fish net of cord covered the outside of the envelope. On 4 June 1783, they flew this craft as their first public demonstration at Annonay in front of a group of dignitaries from the États particuliers. Its flight covered 2 km (1.2 mi), lasted 10 minutes, and had an estimated average altitude in flight of 1,600-2,000 m (5,200-6,600 ft). Word of their success quickly reached Paris. Étienne went to the capital to make further demonstrations and to solidify the brothers’ claim to the invention of flight. Joseph, given who tended towards an unkempt appearance and shyness, remained with the family. Étienne by comparison was generally presentable.

In collaboration with the successful wallpaper manufacturer Jean-Baptiste Réveillon, Étienne constructed a 37,500-cubic-foot (1,060 m3) envelope of taffeta coated with a varnish of alum (which has fireproofing properties). The balloon was sky blue and decorated with golden flourishes, signs of the zodiac, and suns. The design was contributed to by Réveillon. The next test was on 11 September from the grounds of la Folie Titon, close to Réveillon’s house. There was some concern about the effects of flight into the upper atmosphere on living creatures. The king proposed to launch two convicted criminals, but the brothers decided to send a sheep, a duck, and a rooster aloft first.

On 19 September 1783, the Aérostat Réveillon was flown with the first living beings in a basket attached to the balloon: a sheep called Montauciel (“Climb-to-the-sky”), a duck and a rooster. The sheep was believed to have a reasonable approximation of human physiology. The duck was expected to be unharmed by being lifted aloft. It was included as a control for effects created by the balloon rather than the altitude. The rooster was included as a further control as it was a bird that did not fly at high altitudes. This demonstration was performed before a crowd at the royal palace in Versailles, before King Louis XVI of France and Queen Marie Antoinette. The flight lasted approximately eight minutes, covered 2 miles (3 km), and obtained an altitude of about 1,500 feet (460 m). The craft landed safely after flying.

With the successful demonstration at Versailles, and again in collaboration with Réveillon, Étienne started building a 60,000-cubic-foot (1,700 m3) balloon for the purpose of making flights with humans. The balloon was about 75 feet (23 m) tall and about 50 feet (15 m) in diameter. It had rich decorative touches supplied by Réveillon. The color scheme was gold figures on a deep blue background. Fleur-de-lis, signs of the zodiac, and suns with Louis XVI’s face in the center interlaced with the royal monogram in the central section. Red and blue drapery and golden eagles were at the base of the balloon. Étienne Montgolfier was the first human to lift off the Earth, making a tethered test flight from the yard of the Réveillon workshop in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, most likely on October 15, 1783. A little while later on that same day, Pilâtre de Rozier became the second to ascend into the air, to an altitude of 80 feet (24 m), which was the length of the tether. On 21 November 1783, the first free flight by humans was made by Pilâtre, together with an army officer, the marquis d’Arlandes. The flight began from the grounds of the Château de la Muette (close to the Bois de Boulogne (park)) in the western outskirts of Paris. They flew aloft about 3,000 feet (910 m) above Paris for a distance of 9 kilometers. After 25 minutes, the machine landed between the windmills, outside the city ramparts, on the Butte-aux-Cailles. Enough fuel remained on board at the end of the flight to have allowed the balloon to fly four to five times as far. However, burning embers from the fire were scorching the balloon fabric and had to be daubed out with sponges, and also Pilâtre took off his coat to stop the fire.

Annonay is famous for bugnes, a raised-dough fried pastry that also goes by the name angel wings in some parts of Europe. That name plus the fact that yeast makes the dough rise makes them seem suitable for today’s recipe. Bugnes can be flat and crispy or soft and doughy.  These are the latter.

Bugnes Gormandes

Ingredients

250 g flour
10 g baker’s yeast
¼ tsp salt
2 eggs
2 tbsp warm milk
25 g caster sugar
100 g butter, softened
zest of 1 lemon
1 tbsp dark rum (optional)
1 tbsp orange flower water
powdered sugar
vegetable oil (for frying)

Instructions

Dissolve the yeast in the warm milk and let it sit until frothy.

Sift the flour into a large mixing bowl. Dig a well and add the beaten eggs, warm milk plus yeast, salt, and caster sugar. First with a spoon, then with your hands, combine to form a dough. Knead for 5 minutes. Add the rum, orange flower water and lemon rind. Knead for 5 minutes. Add the butter. Knead for another 10 minutes until the dough is smooth and homogenous and peels off the edges of the bowl.  Cover with a cloth and leave for 1 hour at room temperature. After than cover with film and chill in the refrigerator.  It can be kept overnight.

When ready to cook, take the dough from the bowl and give it a quick knead. Roll out the dough on a floured work surface to a thickness of 4 mm.  Cut the dough in to 5 x 5 cm squares. Cut a slit in the middle of each square, then pass a corner through the slit to form a knot.

Heat the oil to 160°C/320°F in a deep fryer.  Temperature is critical. Too hot and the dough will fry too quickly and brown too deeply. Place bugnes 3 at a time into the hot oil. Let the bugnes swell, then turn them over as soon as they rise to the surface and are golden. Leave them to cook about one minute on the other side.

Remove the bugnes from the oil with a slotted spoon before they turn brown. Drain on wire racks.  Let cool then sprinkle with powdered sugar

Yield: 30 bugnes