Mar 232015
 

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On this date in 1857 Elisha Otis installed his first elevator at 488 Broadway, New York City. Otis  (1811 –1861) was a U.S. industrialist, founder of the Otis Elevator Company, and inventor of a safety device that prevents elevators from falling if the hoisting cable fails. He worked on this device while living in Yonkers, New York in 1852, and had a finished product in 1854.

Otis was born in Halifax, Vermont to Stephen Otis, and Phoebe Glynn. He moved away from home at the age of 20, eventually settling in Troy, New York, where he lived for five years employed as a wagon driver. In 1834, he married Susan A. Houghton, and they had two children, Charles and Norton. Later that year, Otis suffered a terrible case of pneumonia which nearly killed him, but he earned enough money to move his wife and three-year-old son to the Vermont Hills on the Green River to convalesce. He designed and built his own gristmill, but did not earn enough money from it, so he converted it into a sawmill, yet still did not attract customers. Now having a second son, he started building wagons and carriages, at which he was fairly skilled. His wife later died, leaving Otis with two sons, one at that time being age 8 and the other still in diapers.

At 34 years old and hoping for a fresh start, he remarried and moved to Albany, New York. He worked as a doll maker for Otis Tingely. Skilled as a craftsman and tired of working all day to make only twelve toys, he invented and patented a robot turner. It could produce bedsteads four times as fast as could be done manually (about fifty a day). Otis then moved into his own business. At his leased building, he started designing a safety brake that could stop trains instantly and an automatic bread baking oven. He was put out of business when the stream he was using for a power supply was diverted by the city of Albany to be used for its fresh water supply. In 1851, having no more use for Albany, he first moved to Bergen City, New Jersey to work as a mechanic, then to Yonkers, New York, as a manager of an abandoned sawmill which he wished to convert into a bedstead factory. At the age of 40, while he was cleaning up the factory, he wondered how he could get all the old debris up to the upper levels of the factory. He had heard of hoisting platforms, but they often broke, and he didn’t want to take risks. He and his sons, who were also tinkerers, designed their own “safety elevator” and tested it successfully. He thought so little of it he neither patented it nor requested a bonus from his superiors for it, nor did he try to sell it. After having made several sales, and after the bedstead factory declined, Otis took the opportunity to make an elevator company out of it, initially called Union Elevator Works and later Otis Brothers & Co. No orders came to him over the next several months, but soon after, the 1854 New York World’s Fair offered a great chance at publicity. At the New York Crystal Palace, Elisha Otis amazed a crowd when he ordered the only rope holding the platform on which he was standing cut. The rope was severed by an axeman, and the platform fell only a few inches before coming to a halt. After the World’s Fair, Otis received continuous orders, doubling each year. He developed different types of engines, such as a three-way steam valve engine, which could switch the elevator between up, down, and stop rapidly.

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In his spare time, he designed and experimented with his old designs of bread-baking ovens and train brakes, and patented a steam plow in 1857, a rotary oven in 1858, and, with Charles, the oscillating steam engine in 1860. Otis contracted diphtheria and died on April 8, 1861 at age 49.

The Otis Elevator Company is now the world’s largest manufacturer of vertical transportation systems, principally focusing on elevators and escalators. Otis has installed elevators in some of the world’s most famous structures, including the Eiffel Tower, Empire State Building, the original World Trade Center, The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror, Petronas Twin Towers, Burj Khalifa, CN Tower, the Hotel del Coronado, the “Pizza Elevator” at Lake Point Tower, and the Skylon Tower.

Statistically, Otis is the world’s most popular transportation company. It is estimated that the equivalent of the world’s population travels in Otis elevators, escalators and moving walkways every three days. According to United Technologies, Otis elevators alone carry the equivalent of the world’s population every nine days.

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From the sublime to the ridiculous: yesterday I had to pick a recipe using water and today I have to have an elevator theme !! More of a challenge than I can manage. However, Otis also worked on developing the rotary oven which gives me a little leverage. The rotary oven has shelves or platters that revolve gently so that baking items receive even heat during the cooking process. The challenge for Otis was to create a mechanism for rotating the shelves before the days of electric motors. His invention, and others like it, used steam engines, which apparently were quite successful. For example, the Scottish born Australian baker William Arnott established the William Arnott’s Steam Biscuit Factory in Newcastle, New South Wales in 1865 using steam powered rotary ovens. Arnott’s is still the largest biscuit (cookie) manufacturer in Australia – fond memories from my boyhood.

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Rotary ovens are used primarily for baked goods including biscuits and breads. But they are not for the home cook. They produce commercial quantities of baked goods. You don’t really need one at home because it is easy enough to reach into your oven and turn trays around for even baking. But when you are baking on a large scale they are invaluable.

There’s not really such a thing as a rotary oven recipe. You just use your favorite cookie or bread recipe. So, take your pick. I’m not much of a baker but I do like to make a gingerbread house at Christmas. My masterpiece was a replica of Caernarvon castle replete with a battle scene. Took me one year to paint all the knights and soldiers and the second to build the castle. A friend commented, “Hmmm! Peace on earth?”

Here’s a serviceable recipe that can be used for a house or cookies. If you want to go hog wild as I used to, you will need to double or even triple the recipe. This will make one small house or about 20 cookies.

This image is taken from here http://www.toptenz.net/10-gingerbread-houses.php – house builders after my own heart.  Pity I could not find a gingerbread house that needed an elevator.

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Gingerbread

Ingredients

¾ cup unsulphured molasses
¾ cup butter
4 cups all-purpose flour, sifted
1 teaspoon double-acting baking powder
1 teaspoon salt
½ teaspoon baking soda
2 teaspoons ground ginger
1 tablespoon ground cinnamon
1 cup dark brown sugar
1 large egg, lightly beaten

Instructions:

Warm the molasses in a saucepan until it is just softened. Do not let it boil. Remove from the heat and stir in the butter until melted. Let cool.

In a large bowl, whisk together the flour, baking powder, salt, baking soda, ginger, cinnamon, and brown sugar.

Add the butter/molasses mixture and egg and mix well. Refrigerate at least one hour or until the dough becomes stiff enough to roll.

Preheat oven to 350°F. Line cookie sheets with parchment paper.

Divide dough in half. Place each half between sheets of parchment paper. Place one half in the refrigerator to keep cool and roll out the other half to ⅛ to ¼ inch thick depending on use – thinner for cookies, thicker for house walls. Either use a template to make the components of a house, or a cookie cutter for cookies. Bake for 12 to 15 minutes or until an even golden brown, rotating the trays at least once to ensure even browning !!

Jun 172014
 

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Today is the birthday (1898) of Maurits Cornelis Escher, usually referred to as M. C. Escher, Dutch graphic artist. He is best known for his often mathematically inspired woodcuts, lithographs, and mezzotints. These feature impossible constructions, explorations of infinity, architecture, and tessellations.

Escher was born in Leeuwarden, Friesland, in a house that forms part of the Princesseof Ceramics Museum today. He was the youngest son of civil engineer George Arnold Escher and his second wife, Sara Gleichman. In 1903, the family moved to Arnhem, where he attended primary school and secondary school until 1918. He was a sickly child, and was placed in a special school at the age of seven and failed the second grade. Although he excelled at drawing, his grades were generally poor. He also took carpentry and piano lessons until he was thirteen years old. In 1919, Escher attended the Haarlem School of Architecture and Decorative Arts. He briefly studied architecture, but he failed a number of subjects (partly due to a persistent skin infection) and switched to decorative arts. He studied under Samuel Jessurun de Mesquita, with whom he remained friends for years. In 1922, Escher left the school after having gained experience in drawing and making woodcuts.

In 1922, an important year of his life, Escher traveled through Italy (Florence, San Gimignano, Volterra, Siena, Ravello) and Spain (Madrid, Toledo, Granada). He was impressed by the Italian countryside and by the Alhambra, a fourteenth-century Moorish castle in Granada. The intricate decorative designs at Alhambra, which were based on geometrical symmetries featuring interlocking repetitive patterns sculpted into the stone walls and ceilings, were a powerful influence on Escher’s works. He returned to Italy regularly in the following years.

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In Italy, Escher met Jetta Umiker, whom he married in 1924. The couple settled in Rome where their first son, Giorgio (George) Arnaldo Escher, named after his grandfather, was born. Escher and Jetta later had two more sons: Arthur and Jan.

In 1935, the political climate in Italy (under Mussolini) became unacceptable to Escher. He had no interest in politics, finding it impossible to involve himself with any ideals other than the expressions of his own concepts through his own particular medium, but he was averse to fanaticism and hypocrisy. When his eldest son, George, was forced at the age of nine to wear a Ballila uniform in school, the family left Italy and moved to Château-d’Œx, Switzerland, where they remained for two years.

Escher, who had been very fond of and inspired by the landscapes in Italy, was decidedly unhappy in Switzerland. In 1937, the family moved again, to Uccle, a suburb of Brussels, Belgium. World War II forced them to move in January 1941, this time to Baarn, Netherlands, where Escher lived until 1970. Most of Escher’s better-known works date from this period. The sometimes cloudy, cold and wet weather of the Netherlands allowed him to focus intently on his work. For a time after undergoing surgery, 1962 was the only period in which Escher did not work on new pieces.

Escher moved to the Rosa Spier Huis in Laren in 1970, an artists’ retirement home in which he had his own studio. He died at the home on 27 March 1972, aged 73.

In his early years, Escher sketched landscapes and nature. He also sketched insects, which appeared frequently in his later work. His first artistic work, completed in 1922, featured eight human heads divided in different planes. Later around 1924, he lost interest in “regular division” of planes, and turned to sketching landscapes in Italy with irregular perspectives that are impossible in natural form.

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Escher’s first print of an impossible reality was Still Life and Street, 1937. His artistic expression was created from images in his mind, rather than directly from observations and travels to other countries. Well known examples of his work include Drawing Hands, a work in which two hands are shown, each drawing the other; Sky and Water, in which light plays on shadow to morph the water background behind fish figures into bird figures on a sky background; and Ascending and Descending, in which lines of people ascend and descend stairs in an infinite loop, on a construction which is impossible to build and possible to draw only by taking advantage of quirks of perception and perspective.

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He worked primarily in the media of lithographs and woodcuts, though the few mezzotints he made are considered to be masterpieces of the technique. In his graphic art, he portrayed mathematical relationships among shapes, figures and space. Additionally, he explored interlocking figures using black and white to enhance different dimensions. Integrated into his prints were mirror images of cones, spheres, cubes, rings and spirals. Escher was left-handed.

Although Escher did not have mathematical training—his understanding of mathematics was largely visual and intuitive—Escher’s work had a strong mathematical component, and more than a few of the worlds which he drew were built around impossible objects such as the Necker cube and the Penrose triangle. Many of Escher’s works employed repeated tilings called tessellations. Escher’s artwork is especially well liked by mathematicians and scientists, who enjoy his use of polyhedra and geometric distortions. For example, in Gravity, multicolored turtles poke their heads out of a stellated dodecahedron.

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The mathematical influence in his work emerged around 1936, when he journeyed to the Mediterranean with the Adria Shipping Company. He became interested in order and symmetry. Escher described his journey through the Mediterranean as “the richest source of inspiration I have ever tapped.”  After his journey to the Alhambra, Escher tried to improve upon the art works of the Moors using geometric grids as the basis for his sketches, which he then overlaid with additional designs, mainly animals such as birds and lions.

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His first study of mathematics, which later led to its incorporation into his art works, began with George Pólya’s academic paper on plane symmetry groups sent to him by his brother Berend. This paper inspired him to learn the concept of the 17 wallpaper groups (plane symmetry groups). Using this mathematical concept, Escher created periodic tilings with 43 colored drawings of different types of symmetry. From this point on he developed a mathematical approach to expressions of symmetry in his art works. Starting in 1937, he created woodcuts using the concept of the 17 plane symmetry groups.

In 1941, Escher summarized his findings in a sketchbook, which he labeled Regelmatige vlakverdeling in asymmetrische congruente veelhoeken (“Regular division of the plane with asymmetric congruent polygons”). His intention in writing this was to aid himself in integrating mathematics into art. Escher is considered a research mathematician of his time because of his documentation with this paper, in which he studied color based division, and developed a system of categorizing combinations of shape, color and symmetrical properties.

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Around 1956, Escher explored the concept of representing infinity on a two-dimensional plane. Discussions with Canadian mathematician H.S.M. Coxeter inspired Escher’s interest in hyperbolic tessellations, which are regular tilings of the hyperbolic plane. Escher’s wood engravings Circle Limit I–IV demonstrate this concept. In 1959, Coxeter published his finding that these works were extraordinarily accurate: “Escher got it absolutely right to the millimeter.”

Escher was awarded the Knighthood of the Order of Orange Nassau in 1955. Subsequently he regularly designed art for dignitaries around the world.

In 1958, he published a book entitled Regular Division of the Plane, with reproductions of a series of woodcuts based on tessellations of the plane, in which he described the systematic buildup of mathematical designs in his artworks. He emphasized, “Mathematicians have opened the gate leading to an extensive domain.”

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Overall, his early love of Roman and Italian landscapes and of nature led to his interest in the concept of regular division of a plane, which he applied in over 150 colored works. Other mathematical principles evidenced in his works include the superposition of a hyperbolic plane on a fixed 2-dimensional plane, and the incorporation of three-dimensional objects such as spheres, columns and cubes into his works. For example, in a print called Reptiles, he combined two and three-dimensional images. In one of his papers, Escher emphasized the importance of dimensionality and described himself as “irritated” by flat shapes: “I make them come out of the plane.”

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Escher also studied topology. He learned additional concepts in mathematics from the British mathematician Roger Penrose (8 Aug 2013). From this knowledge he created Waterfall and Up and Down, featuring irregular perspectives similar to the concept of the Möbius strip.

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Escher printed Metamorphosis I in 1937, which was a beginning part of a series of designs that told a story through the use of pictures. These works demonstrated a culmination of Escher’s skills to incorporate mathematics into art. In Metamorphosis I, he transformed convex polygons into regular patterns in a plane to form a human motif. This effect symbolizes his change of interest from landscape and nature to regular division of a plane. His piece Metamorphosis III is wide enough to cover all the walls in a room, and then loop back on to itself.

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After 1953, Escher became a lecturer at many organizations. A planned series of lectures in North America in 1962 was cancelled due to an illness, but the illustrations and text for the lectures, written out in full by Escher, were later published as part of the book Escher on Escher. In July 1969 he finished his last work, a woodcut called Snakes, in which snakes wind through a pattern of linked rings which fade to infinity toward both the center and the edge of a circle.

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Curl-up or Wentelteefje (original Dutch title) is a lithograph print by M. C. Escher, first printed in November 1951. This is the only work by Escher consisting largely of text. The text, which is written in Dutch, describes an imaginary species called Pedalternorotandomovens centroculatus articulosus, also known as “wentelteefje” or “rolpens”. He says this creature came into existence because of the absence in nature of wheel shaped, living creatures with the ability to roll themselves forward.

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The creature is elongated and armored with several keratinized joints. It has six legs, each with what appears to be a human foot. It has a disc-shaped head with a parrot-like beak and eyes on stalks on either side.

It can either crawl over a variety of terrain with its six legs or press its beak to the ground and roll into a wheel shape. It can then roll, gaining acceleration by pushing with its legs. On slopes it can tuck its legs in and roll freely. This rolling can end in one of two ways; by abruptly unrolling in motion, which leaves the creature belly-up, or by braking to a stop with its legs and slowly unrolling backwards.

The word wentelteefje is Dutch for French toast, “wentel” meaning “to turn over”. Rolpens is a dish made with chopped meat wrapped in a roll and then fried or baked. “Een pens” means “belly”, often used in the phrase beer-belly.

There’s a good recipe for rolpens here:

http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/rolpens-met-hatebliksem-recipe.html

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Or there is the ultra-traditional version which resembles haggis in some ways – basically a stomach stuffed with meat and boiled. Recipe and images here:

http://worstenspek.blogspot.com.ar/2014/01/rolpens-stuffed-and-pickled-paunch.html

However, I thought it would also be fun to follow along in the footsteps of my post on Mondrian (http://www.bookofdaystales.com/mondrian/), and create food that resembles Escher’s art.  This pizza appeals to me, taken from this site:

http://imgur.com/8tlov

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The problem is that this would be really hard to replicate at home (and kudos to the artist). It looks to me as if the designer created a cheese base, and then overlaid cut out pieces of pepperoni.

More promising is the use of cookie cutters with tessellating shapes. As seen in these websites:

https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/soypayaso/cookie-connections-clever-cookie-cutters-cut-cleve

http://boingboing.net/2014/02/23/more-escher-tessellated-cookie.html

http://www.flickr.com/photos/fdecomite/tags/cookie/

http://www.instructables.com/id/Escher-Cookies/

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It seems as if getting the cutters is easy enough. You need to make a cookie dough that keeps its shape while baking, and you need to make at least two contrasting colors. The last URL has a good recipe and an instructional video. Looks like a great deal of fun.