Dec 112018
 

Today is the birthday (1918) of Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn, Russian dissident writer of the Soviet era. Solzhenitsyn was born in Kislovodsk, in the northern Caucasus (now in Stavropol Krai). His mother, Taisiya Zakharovna (née Shcherbak), was of Ukrainian descent. Her father had risen from humble beginnings to become a wealthy landowner, acquiring a large estate in the Kuban region in the northern foothills of the Caucasus. His father was Isaakiy Semyonovich Solzhenitsyn, a young officer in the Imperial Russian Army of Cossack origin and fellow native of the Caucasus region. In 1918, Taisiya became pregnant with Aleksandr. On 15th June, shortly after her pregnancy was confirmed, Isaakiy was killed in a hunting accident. Aleksandr was raised by his widowed mother and his aunt in lowly circumstances. His earliest years coincided with the Russian Civil War. By 1930 the family property had been turned into a collective farm. Later, Solzhenitsyn recalled that his mother had fought for survival and that they had to keep his father’s background in the old Imperial Army a secret. His educated mother (who never remarried) encouraged his literary and scientific leanings and raised him in the Russian Orthodox faith. She died in 1944.

As early as 1936, Solzhenitsyn began developing the characters and concepts for a planned epic work on World War I and the Russian Revolution. This eventually led to the novel August 1914. Solzhenitsyn studied mathematics at Rostov State University. At the same time he took correspondence courses from the Moscow Institute of Philosophy, Literature and History, heavy in Soviet ideology. As he himself makes clear, he did not question the state ideology or the superiority of the Soviet Union until he spent time in the camps.

During the Second World War, Solzhenitsyn served as the commander of a sound-ranging battery in the Red Army, was involved in major action at the front, and was twice decorated. While serving as an artillery officer in East Prussia, Solzhenitsyn witnessed war crimes against local German civilians by Soviet military personnel. The noncombatants and the elderly were robbed of their meager possessions and women and girls were gang-raped to death. In The Gulag Archipelago, Solzhenitsyn wrote,

There is nothing that so assists the awakening of omniscience within us as insistent thoughts about one’s own transgressions, errors, mistakes. After the difficult cycles of such ponderings over many years, whenever I mentioned the heartlessness of our highest-ranking bureaucrats, the cruelty of our executioners, I remember myself in my Captain’s shoulder boards and the forward march of my battery through East Prussia, enshrouded in fire, and I say: ‘So were we any better?’

In February 1945, while serving in East Prussia, Solzhenitsyn was arrested by Red Army Counter-Intelligence for writing derogatory comments in private letters to a friend, Nikolai Vitkevich, about the conduct of the war by Joseph Stalin, whom he called “Khozyain” (“the boss”), and “Balabos” (Yiddish rendering of Hebrew baal ha-bayit for “master of the house”). Also he had talks with the same friend about the need of a new organization against the Soviet regime. He was accused of anti-Soviet propaganda under Article 58 paragraph 10 of the Soviet criminal code, and of “founding a hostile organization” under paragraph 11. Solzhenitsyn was taken to the Lubyanka prison in Moscow, where he was interrogated. On 9th May 1945, it was announced that Germany had surrendered and all of Moscow broke out in celebrations with fireworks and searchlights illuminating the sky to celebrate the victory in the Great Patriotic War as Russians call the war with Germany. From his cell in the Lubyanka, Solzhenitsyn remembered:

Above the muzzle of our window, and from all the other cells of the Lubyanka, and from all the windows of the Moscow prisons, we too, former prisoners of war and former front-line soldiers, watched the Moscow heavens, patterned with fireworks and crisscrossed with beams of searchlights. There was no rejoicing in our cells and no hugs and no kisses for us. That victory was not ours.

On 7 July 1945, he was sentenced in absentia by Special Council of the NKVD to an eight-year term in a labor camp. This was the normal sentence for most crimes under Article 58 at the time. The first part of Solzhenitsyn’s sentence was served in several different work camps; the “middle phase”, as he later referred to it, was spent in a sharashka (i.e., a special scientific research facility run by Ministry of State Security), where he met Lev Kopelev, upon whom he based the character of Lev Rubin in his book The First Circle, published in a self-censored or “distorted” version in the West in 1968 (an English translation of the full version was eventually published 2009). In 1950, he was sent to a “Special Camp” for political prisoners. During his imprisonment at the camp in the town of Ekibastuz in Kazakhstan, he worked as a miner, bricklayer, and foundry foreman. His experiences at Ekibastuz formed the basis for the book One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich.

In March 1953, after his sentence ended, Solzhenitsyn was sent to internal exile for life at Birlik, a village in Baidibek district of South Kazakhstan. His undiagnosed cancer spread until, by the end of the year, he was close to death. In 1954, he was permitted to be treated in a hospital in Tashkent, where his tumor went into remission. His experiences there became the basis of his novel Cancer Ward and also found an echo in the short story “The Right Hand”. It was during this decade of imprisonment and exile that Solzhenitsyn abandoned Marxism and developed the philosophical and religious positions of his later life, gradually becoming a philosophically-minded Eastern Orthodox Christian as a result of his experience in prison and the camps.

After Khrushchev’s Secret Speech in 1956, Solzhenitsyn was freed from exile and exonerated. Following his return from exile, Solzhenitsyn was, while teaching at a secondary school during the day, spending his nights secretly engaged in writing. In 1960, aged 42, he approached Aleksandr Tvardovsky, a poet and the chief editor of the Novy Mir magazine, with the manuscript of One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. It was published in edited form in 1962, with the explicit approval of Nikita Khrushchev, who defended it at the presidium of the Politburo hearing on whether to allow its publication, and added: “There’s a Stalinist in each of you; there’s even a Stalinist in me. We must root out this evil.” The book quickly sold out and became an instant hit. In the 1960s, while he was publicly known to be writing Cancer Ward, he was simultaneously writing The Gulag Archipelago. During Khrushchev’s tenure, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich was studied in schools in the Soviet Union, as were three more short works of Solzhenitsyn’s, including his short story “Matryona’s Home”, published in 1963. These would be the last of his works published in the Soviet Union until 1990.

One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich brought the Soviet system of prison labor to the attention of the West. It caused as much of a sensation in the Soviet Union as it did in the West—not only by its striking realism and candor, but also because it was the first major piece of Soviet literature since the 1920s on a politically charged theme, written by a non-party member, in fact, a man who had been to Siberia for “libelous speech” about the leaders, and yet its publication had been officially permitted. In this sense, the publication of Solzhenitsyn’s story was an almost unheard of instance of free, unrestrained discussion of politics through literature. Most Soviet readers realized this, but after Khrushchev had been ousted from power in 1964, the time for such raw exposing works came to an end.

Solzhenitsyn made an unsuccessful attempt, with the help of Tvardovsky, to get his novel Cancer Ward legally published in the Soviet Union. This had to get the approval of the Union of Writers. Though some there appreciated it, the work ultimately was denied publication unless it was to be revised and cleaned of suspect statements and anti-Soviet insinuations. After Krushchev’s removal in 1964, the cultural climate again became more repressive. Publishing of Solzhenitsyn’s work quickly stopped; as a writer, he became a non-person, and, by 1965, the KGB had seized some of his papers, including the manuscript of The First Circle. Meanwhile, Solzhenitsyn continued to secretly and feverishly work on The Gulag Archipelago. The seizing of his novel manuscript first made him desperate and frightened, but gradually he realized that it had set him free from the pretenses and trappings of being an “officially acclaimed” writer, something which had come close to second nature, but which was becoming increasingly irrelevant.

After the KGB had confiscated Solzhenitsyn’s materials in Moscow, during 1965–67, the preparatory drafts of The Gulag Archipelago were turned into finished typescript in hiding at his friends’ homes in Estonia. Solzhenitsyn had befriended Arnold Susi, a lawyer and former Estonian Minister of Education in a Lubyanka Prison cell. After completion, Solzhenitsyn’s original handwritten script was kept hidden from the KGB in Estonia by Arnold Susi’s daughter Heli Susi until the collapse of the Soviet Union.

In 1969, Solzhenitsyn was expelled from the Union of Writers. In 1970, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. He could not receive the prize personally in Stockholm at that time, since he was afraid he would not be let back into the Soviet Union. Instead, it was suggested he should receive the prize in a special ceremony at the Swedish embassy in Moscow. The Swedish government refused to accept this solution because such a ceremony and the ensuing media coverage might upset the Soviet Union and damage Swedish-Soviet relations. Instead, Solzhenitsyn received his prize at the 1974 ceremony after he had been expelled from the Soviet Union.

The Gulag Archipelago was composed from 1958 to 1967. It was a three-volume, seven part work on the Soviet prison camp system (Solzhenitsyn never had all seven parts of the work in front of him at one time). The book was based upon Solzhenitsyn’s own experience as well as the testimony of 256 former prisoners and Solzhenitsyn’s own research into the history of the Russian penal system. It discussed the system’s origins from the founding of the Communist regime, with Vladimir Lenin having responsibility, detailing interrogation procedures, prisoner transports, prison camp culture, prisoner uprisings and revolts, and the practice of internal exile.

Even though The Gulag Archipelago was not published in the Soviet Union, it was extensively criticized by the Party-controlled Soviet press. An editorial in Pravda on 14 January 1974 accused Solzhenitsyn of supporting “Hitlerites” and making “excuses for the crimes of the Vlasovites and Bandera gangs.” According to the editorial, Solzhenitsyn was “choking with pathological hatred for the country where he was born and grew up, for the socialist system, and for Soviet people.”

On 12th February 1974, Solzhenitsyn was arrested and deported the next day from the Soviet Union to Frankfurt, West Germany and stripped of his Soviet citizenship. The KGB had found the manuscript for the first part of The Gulag Archipelago and, less than a week later, Yevgeny Yevtushenko suffered reprisals for his support of Solzhenitsyn. In West Germany, Solzhenitsyn lived in Heinrich Böll’s house in Langenbroich. He then moved to Zürich, Switzerland before Stanford University invited him to stay in the United States. Despite spending almost two decades in the United States, Solzhenitsyn did not become fluent in spoken English. Solzhenitsyn’s warnings about the dangers of Communist aggression and the weakening of the moral fiber of the West were generally well received in Western conservative circles, but he also criticized what he saw as the ugliness and spiritual vapidity of the dominant pop culture of the US, including television and much of popular music: “…the human soul longs for things higher, warmer, and purer than those offered by today’s mass living habits… by TV stupor and by intolerable music.”

On 8 August 1971, Solzhenitsyn was poisoned with what was later determined to be ricin, but survived. On 19th September 1974, Yuri Andropov approved a large-scale operation to discredit Solzhenitsyn and his family and cut his communications with Soviet dissidents. Andropov also gave an order to create “an atmosphere of distrust and suspicion between Solzhenitsyn and the people around him” by feeding him rumors that everyone in his environment was a KGB agent and deceiving him in all possible ways.

In 1990, his Soviet citizenship was restored, and, in 1994, he returned to Russia with his wife, Natalia, who had become a United States citizen. Their sons stayed behind in the United States (later, his oldest son Yermolai returned to Russia). From then until his death, he lived with his wife in west Moscow. He was a  staunch believer in traditional Russian culture and expressed his disillusionment with post-Soviet Russia in works such as Rebuilding Russia, and called for the establishment of a strong presidential republic balanced by vigorous institutions of local self-government. Solzhenitsyn died of heart failure near Moscow on 3rd August 2008, at the age of 89. A burial service was held at Donskoy Monastery, Moscow, on Wednesday, 6th August 2008. He was buried the same day in the monastery in a spot he had chosen.

Solzhenitsyn is a mixed blessing as far as I am concerned. I read his straight semi-autobiographical novels when they came out and was impressed with their narrative quality. I was less enamored of Gulag Archipelago, and even less so with his wandering political and sociological views. He embraced both Western “freedom” and Putin’s image for post-Soviet Russia, which tells me as much as anything else that he was neither a good observer nor analyst of political landscapes. He was too easily engaged by or disappointed by superficial issues. His handling of the lived experience of Stalinist labor camps and hospitals I found much more engaging.

Here is an amusing video by a comic Russian called Boris on making chebureki, a meat filled fried pastry that is found widely in the Russian Federation as street food, but may have originated in the Caucasus and is extremely popular in the region.

Aug 032016
 

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Today is the birthday (1994) of Esther Grace Earl who died of thyroid cancer on August 25, 2010. Subsequently her birthday was promoted by several friends, including author John Green, as Esther Day with the general motto This Star Won’t Go Out. I will confess that I am on new turf here. I didn’t know anything about Esther Earl, John Green, Nerdfighteria, et al, until I was researching material for days this week and came across some of this stuff. I still don’t know a lot about this general area. But I do understand the grief of losing someone to cancer before what we generally conceive of as “their time.” My wife was 52 when she died, Esther was 16. Furthermore, I understand the desire to perpetuate the memory of someone via ideas they promoted. That’s a large part of what this blog in general is all about. From what I gather Esther was an internet vlogger and a Nerdfighter, as well as an activist in the Harry Potter Alliance. I don’t actually know what any of these things mean although it’s not too hard to guess.

Esther Earl was born in Beverly, Massachusetts to Wayne and Lori Earl, one of five siblings. The Earls moved between Saudi Arabia, Massachusetts, and France. While in Massachusetts, Esther originally lived in Medway before moving with her family to North Quincy and attending North Quincy High School. At the age of 12, in November 2006, while living in Marseille, Esther was diagnosed with metastasized papillary thyroid cancer. The following Thanksgiving, in 2007, when Esther’s parents sought a second opinion at Boston Children’s Hospital, her team of doctors informed her and her parents that her cancer was terminal.

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The year 2007 was also when John Green became aware of Esther. Originally the two maintained an online friendship but then met at LeakyCon 2009, a Harry Potter conference. Their friendship was based in part on her self-identification as a Nerdfighter, a member of Nerdfighteria, an online community of fans of the VlogBrothers. I have to say that even as I report this I have no idea what I am talking about. Esther built an online presence on platforms such as Twitter, Tumblr, and YouTube and continued her community-related online activities until her death.

Shortly before her death, Green uploaded I Love Hank: Esther Day 2010:

This video is pretty much self explanatory. Despite what I do on this blog I am not a big fan of special days such as Mother’s Day, Father’s Day, Friends’ Day, or Valentine’s Day. They seem to benefit greeting card manufacturers and florists more than individuals, and can create a lot of anxiety. My mother and father are dead, and I don’t have a girlfriend, so mostly these days remind me of that fact. I don’t need reminding. More than that, though, I don’t like single days that place emphasis on doing something special for a class of people. The commandment “Honor thy father and thy mother” does not continue, “one day out of the year.” The times when I had a wife or a girlfriend I bought chocolates or flowers for them when I felt like it. However, I do recognize the urge to memorialize a person who was of importance to you, on a special day. That’s what saints’ days are all about.

John Green wrote:

Esther means “star,” and her friends had a bracelet printed out that reads This star won’t go out, and it won’t. We won’t let it.

Actually, the identification of the name Esther with the Persian, ستاره (setareh), “star” is highly debatable, but it’s hardly worth making an issue out of it. Following her death, Esther’s parents, Wayne and Lori founded This Star Won’t Go Out, a non profit organization which helps families that have cancer-stricken children.  To assist the organization, the VlogBrothers give proceeds from TSWGO merchandise such as wristbands sold on DFTBA.com.

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Additionally, Esther had her book, which was co-written with her parents, posthumously published under the title, This Star Won’t Go Out: The Life and Words of Esther Grace Earl. Green contributed to the book, writing its introduction. The book is a biography of Esther’s life, as well as a collection of her journals and drawings. It won the 2014 Goodreads Choice Award in the “Memoir & Autobiography” category, and appeared on the New York Times bestseller list for young adult books.

Green said that Esther was the one to suggest “the idea of celebrating friends and family and love,” specifically, “the kinds of love that are too often overlooked in our culture: love among friends and family.” I’m hip to that and I think cooking (and eating) together is a good way to express that love.  Here’s a gallery of images from when I had to leave China unexpectedly. My students showed up at my apartment and we all cooked and ate together.

esther7 esther5 esther4 esther8 esther6 esther9 esther10

So, for Esther Day I suggest the same. Cook what you love to cook, but WITH someone else. Make the most of your time with family and friends. You never know when that time will end.

May 272016
 

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Today is Don’t Fry Day in the United States – an unofficial celebration which is not quite what it seems. In this case “fry” is not about food, but concerns your skin. The day is promoted by the National Council on Skin Cancer Prevention, and occurs on the Friday (i.e. “Fry Day”) before Memorial Day because Memorial Day launches the summer season in the U.S. Their basic mantra is, “That ‘healthy tan’ is killing you.” I grew up in Australia which has the highest incidence of skin cancer in the world. My U.S. dermatologist used to want to see me every 6 months, and each time he took off bits of my skin for analysis. Always benign, but you can never be too careful. Nowadays I use sunscreen, wear a hat, and walk on the shady side of the street.

So, that’s the overt reason for Don’t Fry Day. There are also dangers associated with fried foods.  Most of these are common knowledge: increased fat intake, the dangers of trans fats etc. No need to dwell on them. But there is one possible danger that is less well known – acrylamide.  Acrylamide has many industrial uses including wastewater treatment, the production of polymers, plastics and paper, and mineral processing. It was discovered in foods in 2002 by Eritrean scientist Eden Tareke in Sweden when she found the chemical in starchy foods, such as potato chips (potato crisps), French fries (chips), and bread that had been heated higher than 120 °C (248 °F). It was not found in food that had been boiled or in foods that were not heated. Acrylamide levels appear to rise as food is heated for longer periods of time. Although researchers are still unsure of the precise mechanisms by which acrylamide forms in foods; many believe it is a byproduct of the Maillard reaction. Later studies have found acrylamide in black olives, prunes, dried pears, and coffee. The FDA has analyzed a variety of U.S. food products for levels of acrylamide since 2002.

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Although acrylamide has known toxic effects on the nervous system and on fertility, a June 2002 report by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization concluded that the intake level required to observe neuropathy (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day) was 500 times higher than the average dietary intake of acrylamide (1 μg/kg body weight/day). For effects on fertility, the level is 2,000 times higher than the average intake. From this, they concluded acrylamide levels in food were safe in terms of neuropathy, but raised concerns over human carcinogenicity based on known carcinogenicity in laboratory animals. According to the American Cancer Society it is not clear, as of 2013, whether acrylamide consumption affects people’s risk of developing cancer.

The Heat-generated Food Toxicants (HEATOX) Project was a European Commission-funded multidisciplinary research project running from late 2003 to early 2007. Its objectives were to “estimate health risks that may be associated with hazardous compounds in heat-treated food, and to find cooking/processing methods that minimize the amounts of these compounds, thereby providing safe, nutritious, and high-quality food-stuffs.” While it found that “the evidence of acrylamide posing a cancer risk for humans has been strengthened,” it also pointed out that home-cooked food tends to contribute far less to overall acrylamide levels than food that was industrially prepared, and that avoiding overcooking is one of the best ways to minimize exposure at home.

I see this all as reasonably good news. I rarely buy commercially produced foods and I don’t fry or eat fried foods that are high in carbohydrates very often. Furthermore, I don’t prepare every recipe that I give here on the day that I give it. Otherwise I’d look like a blimp. I do test most of them, of course, but my eating habits are much more Spartan. In particular I am partial to salads, and so for Don’t Fry Day I’ll focus on them.

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I don’t mind making salads containing proteins such as meat, eggs, or cheese, but they are not my favorites. I like my proteins served separately. The standard salad in Argentina is lettuce, tomato, and onion, chopped and mixed together, and drizzled with a little olive oil. That’s all right as a side dish, but not very exciting as a main course (plus, I don’t like raw onions and lettuce much). I prefer something more complex. My main thing is that I don’t like “dressings” whether commercial or home made. I’ll happily eat a salad with nothing on it all, or with a little olive oil. Here’s a brief list of my usual ingredients:

Lettuce. My least favorite salad ingredient. I used to grow my own varieties of leaf lettuce which were very flavorful. Store-bought lettuce can be dull, and I am not interested in fillers. Most important thing to remember is to tear the leaves (as you should with all leafy greens). Cut edges often turn brown.

Spinach. By contrast, my favorite leafy green component. I grew spinach too when I had a garden and would choose small, young leaves for salads.

Belgian endive. Adds some crunch and visual appeal.

Mushrooms. Regular commercial agarics (white mushrooms) will do in a pinch and I like them raw. But I’ve been spoilt in recent years in China and Italy by the seemingly endless variety of wild mushrooms. As with leafy greens I break them in pieces rather than cut them.

Tomatoes. I like whole cherry tomatoes in a salad. If I use bigger varieties I cut them small and remove the seeds and centers to avoid getting the salad soggy.

Onions. Here I’ll include the whole onion family – chives, leeks, shallots, etc. Generally, I find raw Spanish onions to be a trifle strong in salads, but I’ll normally add something from the family such as scallions or green onions. I like chive flowers too when I can get them.

Zucchini. I prefer sliced young zucchini over cucumber because it’s less watery and crunchier. The flowers are good too – very popular in Italy. Zucchini with tender edible flowers tend to be small.

Avocado. A perennial standby of mine, but they must be perfectly ripe, and added right at the end just before serving with a good sprinkling of lemon or lime juice to prevent browning.

Carrots.  Can’t stand them in salads.

Herbs. In Medieval cooking parlance a “herb” was any leafy annual. Lettuce was as much of an herb as basil or parsley. I don’t use flavored dressings, but when I can I will use fresh herbs right in the salad. One has to be sparing, though. I used to grow 18 varieties of mint, which were wonderful, but very strong. Sage and tarragon are also good.

I’m not the arbiter here.  Pick what suits your palate. I make salads with what I have on hand, so mine vary a lot. I’ll generally chill a salad before serving, but not for very long. The cooling process is a mixed blessing: it makes the salad refreshing on a hot day, but diminishes the flavor.