Jun 122017
 

Today is the birthday (1890) of Egon Schiele, an Austrian painter whose work is noted for its intensity and its raw sexuality that cut completely against the grain of the nude in Western art and caused him to be condemned as crude by the art world. Nowadays his name is not much recognized alongside that of his mentor Gustav Klimt, but I have known about his work for a long time since first being introduced to it by a girlfriend who was an art student in Oxford. I took that as a positive sign. He is now recognized as one of the founders of Expressionism – which I can’t honestly say appeals to me all that much, any more than does Schiele’s personal lifestyle: de gustibus . . .

Schiele was born in Tulln, Lower Austria. His father, Adolf Schiele, was the station master of the Tulln station of the Austrian State Railways. As a child, Schiele was fascinated by trains, and would spend many hours drawing them, to the point where his father decided to destroy his sketchbooks. When he was 11 years old, Schiele moved to the nearby city of Krems (and later to Klosterneuburg) to attend secondary school. To those around him, Schiele was regarded as a strange child. Shy and reserved, he did poorly at school except in athletics and drawing, and was usually in classes made up of younger pupils. He also displayed incestuous tendencies towards his younger sister Gertrude (known as Gerti), and his father, well aware of Egon’s behavior, once broke down the door of a locked room that Egon and Gerti were in to see what they were doing (only to discover that they were developing a film).

When Schiele was 15 years old, his father died from syphilis, and he became a ward of his maternal uncle, Leopold Czihaczek, also a railway official Although he wanted Schiele to follow in his footsteps, and was distressed at his lack of interest in academia, he recognized Schiele’s talent for drawing and unenthusiastically allowed him a tutor; the artist Ludwig Karl Strauch. In 1906 Schiele applied at the Kunstgewerbeschule (School of Arts and Crafts) in Vienna, where Gustav Klimt had once studied. Within his first year there, Schiele was sent, at the insistence of several faculty members, to the more traditional Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna in 1906. His main teacher at the academy was Christian Griepenkerl, a painter whose strict doctrine and ultra-conservative style frustrated and dissatisfied Schiele and many of his fellow students.

In 1907, Schiele sought out Gustav Klimt, who generously mentored younger artists. Klimt took a particular interest in the young Schiele, buying his drawings, offering to exchange them for some of his own, arranging models for him and introducing him to potential patrons. He also introduced Schiele to the Wiener Werkstätte, the arts and crafts workshop connected with the Vienna Secession (a group of artist who rebelled against conservative art). In 1908 Schiele had his first exhibition, in Klosterneuburg. Schiele left the Academy in 1909, after completing his third year, and founded the Neukunstgruppe (“New Art Group”) with other dissatisfied students.

Klimt invited Schiele to exhibit some of his work at the 1909 Vienna Kunstschau, where he encountered the work of Edvard Munch, Jan Toorop, and Vincent van Gogh among others. Once free of the constraints of the Academy’s conventions, Schiele began to explore not only the human form, but also human sexuality. At the time, many found the explicitness of his works disturbing. Some undoubtedly still do.

From then on, Schiele participated in numerous group exhibitions, including those of the Neukunstgruppe in Prague in 1910 and Budapest in 1912; the Sonderbund, Cologne, in 1912; and several Secessionist shows in Munich, beginning in 1911. In 1913, the Galerie Hans Goltz in Munich, mounted Schiele’s first solo show, and another solo exhibition of his work took place in Paris in 1914.

Schiele’s work was already daring, but it went a bold step further with the inclusion of Klimt’s decorative eroticism and with what some call figurative distortions, that included elongations, deformities, and sexual openness (diagnostic of Expressionism). Schiele’s self-portraits helped re-establish the energy of both genres with their unique level of emotional and sexual honesty and use of figural distortion in place of conventional ideals of beauty. Egon Schiele’s Kneeling Nude with Raised Hands (1910) is considered among the most significant nude art pieces made during the 20th century. Schiele’s radical and developed approach towards the naked human form challenged both scholars and progressives alike. This unconventional piece and style went against strict academia and created an uproar concerning its contorted lines and heavy display of figurative expression.

In 1911, Schiele met the 17-year-old Walburga (Wally) Neuzil, who lived with him in Vienna and served as a model for some of his most striking paintings. Very little is known of her, except that she had previously modeled for Gustav Klimt and might have been one of his mistresses. Schiele and Wally wanted to escape what they perceived as the claustrophobic Viennese milieu, and went to the small town of Český Krumlov (Krumau) in southern Bohemia. Krumau was the birthplace of Schiele’s mother; today it is the site of a museum dedicated to Schiele. Despite Schiele’s family connections in Krumau, he and Wally were driven out of the town by the residents, who strongly disapproved of their lifestyle, including his (alleged) employment of the town’s teenage girls as models.

Together they moved to Neulengbach, 35 km west of Vienna, seeking inspirational surroundings and an inexpensive studio in which to work. Schiele’s studio became a gathering place for Neulengbach’s delinquent children, and Schiele’s way of life aroused a great deal of animosity among the town’s inhabitants. In April 1912 he was arrested for seducing a young girl below the age of consent.

When they came to his studio to place him under arrest, the police seized more than a hundred drawings which they considered pornographic. Schiele was imprisoned while awaiting his trial. When his case was brought before a judge, the charges of seduction and abduction were dropped, but the artist was found guilty of exhibiting erotic drawings in a place accessible to children. In court, the judge burned one of the offending drawings over a candle flame. The 21 days he had already spent in custody were taken into account, and he was sentenced to a further three days’ imprisonment. While in prison, Schiele created a series of 12 paintings depicting the difficulties and discomfort of being locked in a jail cell.

In 1914, Schiele glimpsed the sisters Edith and Adéle Harms, who lived with their parents across the street from his studio in the Viennese district of Hietzing, 101 Hietzinger Hauptstraße. In 1915, Schiele decided to marry Edith, but had apparently expected to maintain a relationship with Wally. However, when he explained the situation to Wally, she left him immediately and never saw him again. This abandonment led him to paint Death and the Maiden, where Wally’s portrait is based on a previous pairing, but Schiele’s is new. Despite some opposition from the Harms family, Schiele and Edith were married on 17 June 1915, the anniversary of the wedding of Schiele’s parents.

 

Despite avoiding conscription for almost a year, World War I now began to shape Schiele’s life and work. Three days after his wedding, Schiele was ordered to report for active service in the army where he was initially stationed in Prague. Edith came with him and stayed in a hotel in the city, while Egon lived in an exhibition hall with his fellow conscripts. They were allowed by Schiele’s commanding officer to see each other occasionally. Despite his military service, Schiele was still exhibiting in Berlin. During the same year, he also had successful shows in Zürich, Prague, and Dresden. His first duties consisted of guarding and escorting Russian prisoners. Because of his weak heart and his excellent handwriting, Schiele was eventually given a job as a clerk in a POW camp near the town of Mühling.

There he was allowed to draw and paint imprisoned Russian officers, and his commander, Karl Moser (who assumed that Schiele was a painter and decorator when he first met him), even gave him a disused store room to use as a studio. Since Schiele was in charge of the food stores in the camp, he and Edith could get food beyond state rations. By 1917, he was back in Vienna, able to focus on his artistic career. His output was prolific, and his work reflected the maturity of an artist in his prime. He was invited to participate in the Secession’s 49th exhibition, held in Vienna in 1918. Schiele had fifty works accepted for this exhibition, and they were displayed in the main hall. He also designed a poster for the exhibition, which was reminiscent of the Last Supper, with a portrait of himself in the place of Christ. The show was a triumphant success, and as a result, prices for Schiele’s drawings increased and he received many portrait commissions.

In the autumn of 1918, the Spanish flu pandemic that claimed more than 20,000,000 lives in Europe reached Vienna. Edith, who was six months pregnant, succumbed to the disease on 28th October. Schiele died only three days after his wife. He was 28 years old. During the three days between their deaths, Schiele drew a few sketches of Edith.

Fortunately Schiele was not Viennese, so I do not have to pummel my brain for a new recipe. He came from Lower Austria, and it’s important to realize that Viennese cuisine and Austrian cuisine are not synonymous. As in every European nation there are regional styles of cooking that are readily identifiable. Lower Austria is noted for its apricot production and, hence, an apricot stuffed dumpling called Marillenknödel. The dough is made using quark, German word for “curds” which have been whipped and resemble yoghurt somewhat. You can buy it in the US and Britain if you hunt. Otherwise, substitute cottage cheese.

Marillenknödel

Ingredients

5 tbsp butter, melted
1 cup/8oz quark (or cottage cheese, well drained)
salt
2 eggs, lightly beaten
2 cups all-purpose flour
1 ½ lb fresh apricots (8-10)
12 (approx.) sugar cubes
⅓ cup butter
1 cup fine dry breadcrumbs
3 tbsp granulated sugar

Instructions

In a large bowl combine the melted butter, quark, a pinch of salt, eggs and most of the flour. Use a wooden spoon then your hands to knead into a soft dough.  Don’t add more flour than necessary. Shape into a ball, cover and let stand 30 minutes.

Wash and dry the apricots, then cut them in halves, remove and discard the pit. Place 1 sugar cube between each pair of apricot halves and set aside.

Bring 3 quarts of lightly salted water to a gentle boil in a large pot.

On a lightly floured board, press or roll out the dough to a ½” thickness. Cut into 2”squares. Place a stuffed apricot (2 halves with a sugar cube in the middle) in the center of each square of dough. Press the dough around the fruit, covering them completely and as evenly as possible.

Add the dumplings to the gently boiling water in batches and cook for 10 minutes. Don’t let the water boil too vigorously or the dumplings will fall apart before cooking. Remove with a slotted spoon and drain on wire racks.

Melt ⅓ cup of butter in a medium skillet. Add the breadcrumbs and 3 tablespoons of granulated sugar and sauté until caramelized a golden brown. Roll the dumplings in the caramelized breadcrumbs to completely coat.

Jul 152016
 

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According to Roman historians (most notably, Livy), the first temple to Castor and Pollux in ancient Rome was dedicated on this day in 484 BCE. It was originally built in gratitude for victory at the Battle of Lake Regillus. Castor and Pollux, the twins of Gemini (Dioscuri), sons of Zeus/Jupiter and Leda were believed to have played a role in the battle. Their cult came to Rome from Greece via Magna Graecia and the Greek culture of Southern Italy.

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Both Livy and Dionysius of Halicarnassus state the last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud), and his allies, the Latins, waged war on the infant Roman Republic some time around 496 BCE. Historical details are a bit cloudy and mixed with legend. Supposedly, Tarquin had been expelled as king in 509 BCE and a republic established. The battle of Lake Regillus was his last ditch effort to regain his throne. Before the battle, the Roman dictator Aulus Postumius Albus Regillensis vowed to build a temple to the Dioscuri if the Republic were victorious. According to legend Castor and Pollux appeared on the battlefield as two able horsemen in aid of the Republic, and after the battle had been won they again appeared in the Forum in Rome watering their horses at the Spring of Juturna and announcing the victory. The temple was built on the supposed spot of their appearance. One of Postumius’ sons was elected duumvir (magistrate) in order to dedicate the temple on 15 July (the ides of July) 484 BC.

In Republican times the temple served as a meeting place for the Roman Senate, and from the middle of the 2nd century BCE the front of the podium served as a speaker’s platform. During the imperial period the temple housed the office for weights and measures, and was a depository for the state treasury.

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The archaic temple was completely reconstructed and enlarged in 117 BCE by Lucius Caecilius Metellus Dalmaticus after his victory over the Dalmatians. Gaius Verres restored this second temple in 73 BCE. In 14 BCE a fire that ravaged major parts of the forum destroyed the temple, and Tiberius, the son of Augustus by a previous marriage of Livia and the eventual heir to the throne, rebuilt it. Tiberius’ temple was dedicated in 6 CE. The remains visible today are from the temple of Tiberius, except the podium, which is from the time of Metellus.

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The temple was probably already falling apart in the 4th century CE, when a wall in front of the Lacus Juturnae was erected from reused material. Nothing is known of its subsequent history, except that in the 15th century only three columns of its original structure were still standing. The street running by the building was called via Trium Columnarum (three columns street).

In 1760, the Conservatori, finding the columns in a state of imminent collapse, erected scaffolding to effect repairs. Both Piranesi and the young English architect George Dance the Younger were able to climb up and make accurate measurements. Dance reported to his father that he had “a Model cast from the finest Example of the Corinthian order perhaps in the whole World.”

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Today the podium survives without the facing, as do the three columns and a piece of the entablature, one of the most famous features in the Forum. Originally the temple had eight Corinthian columns (octastyle) at the short sides and eleven on the long sides. There was a single cella (inner chamber) paved with mosaics. The podium measures 32 m × 49.5 m (105 ft × 162 ft) and 7 m (23 ft) in height. The building was constructed in opus caementicium (Roman cement) and originally covered with slabs of tuff (volcanic ash rock) which were later removed. According to ancient sources, the temple had a single central stairway to access the podium, but excavations have identified two side stairs.

I could provide another Roman recipe to celebrate the day but the sources are from the late imperial period at best and so are not especially relevant to the cuisine of the early Republic. Instead, I thought I’d be a little more creative. Gemini (Castor and Pollux) is an astrological sign and, as such, people born under this sign have been assigned traditional qualities. Among these qualities, which tend to be reasonably well agreed upon, are food suggestions, which are, at best, fanciful, and range far and wide depending on who you read. This list is far from definitive, but appeals to me for purely aesthetic reasons:

Meat: Poultry

Fruits: Apricots, Pomegranates

Vegetables: Beans, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Celery

Nuts: Almonds, Brazil Nuts, Filberts, Pecans, Pistachios

Herbs & Spices: Anise, Cardamom, Chamomile, Chicory, Cinnamon, Citron, Cloves, Ginseng, Licorice, Maple, Nutmeg, Sage, Sarsaparilla, Sassafras, Saffron, Sesame, Spearmint, Thyme

There’s certainly plenty to choose from here. I decided to pick chicken and apricots as the main ingredient, flavored with thyme. If you wanted to spice it up a little you could use a mix of cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and saffron instead. Almonds could also be added. Whatever you choose, I suggest adding balsamic vinegar to contrast with the sweetness of the apricots. Such a balance of sweet and sour accords with ancient Roman recipes (although they would have used liquamen) and is also in keeping with the oppositional duality of Gemini.

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©Apricot Chicken

Ingredients

1 chicken (3 lbs) cut in 8 pieces
1 medium onion, peeled and sliced
1 cup chicken stock
¼ cup balsamic vinegar
20 small apricots, halved and pitted
½ cup apricot preserves
1 tbsp fresh thyme, finely chopped
olive oil
salt and pepper

Instructions

Heat olive oil in a large heavy skillet over medium-high heat and sauté the chicken pieces to a golden brown on all sides. If necessary you can do this in batches.

Add the onion and balsamic vinegar to the chicken pieces and let the liquid reduce for about 10 minutes.

Add the chicken stock, preserves, apricots, and thyme and stir to make sure everything is thoroughly mixed. Season with salt and pepper to taste.

Simmer covered for 10 minutes, then uncover and let the sauce reduce. You can add a little cornstarch dissolved in water if the sauce is too thin, but reduction is a better option.

Serve with plain boiled white rice.