May 032015
 

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Today is the birthday (1919) of Peter “Pete” Seeger. I’ll be quite up front about it: I dislike his music; I greatly admire his activism. He was also a really decent and friendly guy, despite all the fame. I’m going to focus here on his activism rather than his music even though they are entwined. In my mid-teens (1960’s) I was a genuine fan of the “folk scene;” all part of my nascent hippiedom. But it did not last long. My musical tastes drifted a good bit sideways to Tuvan throat singing and whatnot (still planning my first trip to Tuva when I can drum up the wherewithall to trek across Mongolia by yak). For now I content myself with old Chinese musicians playing ethereal melodies on one-string fiddles in the park on Sundays. My activist sentiments have not changed.

In 1936, at the age of 17, Pete Seeger joined the Young Communist League (YCL), then at the height of its popularity and influence. In 1942 he became a member of the Communist Party USA (CPUSA) itself, but left in 1949.

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In the spring of 1941, the twenty-one-year-old Seeger performed as a member of the Almanac Singers along with Millard Lampell, Cisco Houston, Woody Guthrie, Butch and Bess Lomax Hawes, and Lee Hays. Seeger and the Almanacs cut several albums of 78s on Keynote and other labels, Songs for John Doe (recorded in late February or March and released in May 1941), the Talking Union, and an album each of sea shanties and pioneer songs. Written by Millard Lampell, Songs for John Doe was performed by Lampell, Seeger, and Hays, joined by Josh White and Sam Gary. It contained lines such as, “It wouldn’t be much thrill to die for Du Pont in Brazil,” that were sharply critical of Roosevelt’s unprecedented peacetime draft (enacted in September 1940). This anti-war/anti-draft tone reflected the Communist Party line after the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, which maintained the war was “phony” and a mere pretext for big American corporations to get Hitler to attack Soviet Russia. Seeger has said he believed this line of argument at the time—as did many fellow members of the Young Communist League. Though nominally members of the Popular Front, which was allied with Roosevelt and more moderate liberals, the YCL’s members still smarted from Roosevelt and Churchill’s arms embargo to Loyalist Spain (which Roosevelt later called a mistake), and the alliance frayed in the confusing welter of events.

At that point, the U.S. had not yet entered the war but was energetically re-arming. African Americans were barred from working in defense plants, a situation that greatly angered both African Americans and white progressives. Civil rights leader A. J. Muste and black union leaders A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin began planning a huge march on Washington to protest racial discrimination in war industries and to urge desegregation of the armed forces. The march, which many regard as the first manifestation of the Civil Rights Movement, was canceled after President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 (The Fair Employment Act) of June 25, 1941, barring discrimination in hiring by companies holding federal contracts for defense work. This Presidential act defused black anger considerably, although the United States Army still refused to desegregate, declining to participate in what it considered social experimentation.

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Seeger served in the U.S. Army in the Pacific. He was trained as an airplane mechanic, but was reassigned to entertain the American troops with music. Later, when people asked him what he did in the war, he always answered “I strummed my banjo.” After returning from service, Seeger and others established People’s Songs, conceived as a nationwide organization with branches on both coasts and designed to “Create, promote and distribute songs of labor and the American People.” With Pete Seeger as its director, People’s Songs worked for the 1948 presidential campaign of Roosevelt’s former Secretary of Agriculture and Vice President, Henry A. Wallace, who ran as a third-party candidate on the Progressive Party ticket. Despite having attracted enormous crowds nationwide, however, Wallace won only in New York City, and, in the red-baiting frenzy that followed, he was excoriated (as Roosevelt had not been) for accepting the help in his campaign of Communists and fellow travelers such as Seeger and singer Paul Robeson.

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As a self-described “split tenor” (between an alto and a tenor), Pete Seeger was a founding member of two highly influential folk groups: The Almanac Singers and the Weavers. The Almanac Singers, which Seeger co-founded in 1941 with Millard Lampell and Arkansas singer and activist Lee Hays, was a topical group, designed to function as a singing newspaper promoting the industrial unionization movement, racial and religious inclusion, and other progressive causes. Its personnel included, at various times: Woody Guthrie, Bess Lomax Hawes, Sis Cunningham, Josh White, and Sam Gary. As a controversial Almanac singer, the 21-year-old Seeger performed under the stage name “Pete Bowers” to avoid compromising his father’s government career.

In the 1950s and, indeed, consistently throughout his life, Seeger continued his support of civil and labor rights, racial equality, international understanding, and anti-militarism (all of which had characterized the Wallace campaign) and he continued to believe that songs could help people achieve these goals. With the ever-growing revelations of Joseph Stalin’s atrocities and the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, however, he became increasingly disillusioned with Soviet Communism. He left the CPUSA in 1949 but remained friends with some who did not leave it, though he argued with them about it.

Pete Seeger at the House Un-American Activites committee

On August 18, 1955, Seeger was subpoenaed to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). Alone among the many witnesses after the 1950 conviction and imprisonment of the Hollywood Ten for contempt of Congress, Seeger refused to plead the Fifth Amendment (which would have asserted that his testimony might be self incriminating) and instead, as the Hollywood Ten had done, refused to name personal and political associations on the grounds that this would violate his First Amendment rights: “I am not going to answer any questions as to my association, my philosophical or religious beliefs or my political beliefs, or how I voted in any election, or any of these private affairs. I think these are very improper questions for any American to be asked, especially under such compulsion as this.” Seeger’s refusal to answer questions that violated his fundamental Constitutional rights led to a March 26, 1957, indictment for contempt of Congress; for some years, he had to keep the federal government apprised of where he was going any time he left the Southern District of New York. He was convicted in a jury trial of contempt of Congress in March 1961, and sentenced to ten 1-year terms in jail (to be served simultaneously), but in May 1962 an appeals court ruled the indictment to be flawed and overturned his conviction.

A longstanding opponent of the arms race and of the Vietnam War, Seeger satirically attacked then-President Lyndon Johnson with his 1966 recording, on the album Dangerous Songs!?, of Len Chandler’s children’s song, “Beans in My Ears”. Beyond Chandler’s lyrics, Seeger said that “Mrs. Jay’s little son Alby” had “beans in his ears,” which, as the lyrics imply, ensures that a person does not hear what is said to them. To those opposed to continuing the Vietnam War, the phrase implied that “Alby Jay”, a loose pronunciation of Johnson’s nickname “LBJ,” did not listen to anti-war protests as he too had “beans in his ears”.

During 1966 Seeger and Malvina Reynolds took part in environmental activism. The album God Bless the Grass was released on January of that year and became the first album in history wholly dedicated to songs about environmental issues. Their politics were informed by the same ideologies of nationalism, populism, and criticism of big business.

Seeger attracted wider attention starting in 1967 with his song “Waist Deep in the Big Muddy”, about a captain—referred to in the lyrics as “the big fool”—who drowned while leading a platoon on maneuvers in Louisiana during World War II. With its lyrics about a platoon being led into danger by an ignorant captain, the song’s anti-war message was obvious- the line “the big fool said to push on” is repeated several times. In the face of arguments with the management of CBS about whether the song’s political weight was in keeping with the usually light-hearted entertainment of the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, the final lines were “Every time I read the paper/those old feelings come on/We are waist deep in the Big Muddy and the big fool says to push on.”

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In 1982, Seeger performed at a benefit concert for Poland’s Solidarity resistance movement. His biographer David Dunaway considers this the first public manifestation of Seeger’s decades-long personal dislike of communism in its Soviet form. In the late 1980s Seeger also expressed disapproval of violent revolutions, remarking to an interviewer that he was really in favor of incremental change and that “the most lasting revolutions are those that take place over a period of time.” In a 1995 interview he insisted, “I still call myself a communist, because communism is no more what Russia made of it than Christianity is what the churches make of it.”

Over the years he lent his fame to support numerous environmental organizations, including South Jersey’s Bayshore Center, the home of New Jersey’s tall ship, the oyster schooner A.J. Meerwald. Seeger’s benefit concerts helped raise funds for groups so they could continue to educate and spread environmental awareness.

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On May 3, 2009, at the Clearwater Concert, dozens of musicians gathered in New York at Madison Square Garden to celebrate Seeger’s 90th birthday (which was later televised on PBS during the summer), ranging from Dave Matthews, John Mellencamp, Billy Bragg, Bruce Springsteen, Tom Morello, Eric Weissberg, Ani DiFranco and Roger McGuinn to Joan Baez, Richie Havens, Joanne Shenandoah, R. Carlos Nakai, Bill Miller, Joseph Fire Crow, Margo Thunderbird, Tom Paxton, Ramblin’ Jack Elliott and Arlo Guthrie. Cuban singer-songwriter Silvio Rodríguez was also invited to appear but his visa was not approved in time by the United States government. Consistent with Seeger’s long-time advocacy for environmental concerns, the proceeds from the event benefited the Hudson River Sloop Clearwater, a non-profit organization founded by Seeger in 1966, to defend and restore the Hudson River.

Seeger died at New York-Presbyterian Hospital,on January 27, 2014, at the age of 94. Response and reaction to Seeger’s death quickly poured in. President Barack Obama noted that Seeger had been called “America’s tuning fork” and that he believed in “the power of song” to bring social change, “Over the years, Pete used his voice and his hammer to strike blows for workers’ rights and civil rights; world peace and environmental conservation, and he always invited us to sing along. For reminding us where we come from and showing us where we need to go, we will always be grateful to Pete Seeger.” Folksinger Billy Bragg wrote that: “Pete believed that music could make a difference. Not change the world, he never claimed that – he once said that if music could change the world he’d only be making music – but he believed that while music didn’t have agency, it did have the power to make a difference.” Bruce Springsteen said of Seeger’s death, “I lost a great friend and a great hero last night, Pete Seeger”, before performing “We Shall Overcome” while on tour in South Africa.

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Seeger lived on the Hudson River in Beacon, NY for many years, and, of course the Hudson River valley was one of his favorite spots. I lived a little south of him and would stop by once in a while (courtesy of an odd family connexion between him and my late wife). One of my fondest memories of the region is the pick-your-own apple orchards. Yearly outings with my son were a special treat for him (“Dad, when can we go pick apples?”). So, I’d say do something with apples in honor of Pete even though it is the wrong season. My local orchard sold unpasteurized cider which fermented into a fizzy drink within days. Delicious. I can’t tell you how many ways I cooked those apples, my favorite being apple crumble (see http://www.bookofdaystales.com/samuel-johnson/).

When I used to roast a Christmas goose I always stuffed it with sliced apples tossed in powdered cinnamon, allspice and cloves (sage and onion “stuffing” I roasted on the side to avoid the excessive fat inside the goose). As a side dish I made red cabbage and apples. We were a small family for Christmas dinner; Boxing Day was the big blowout. In consequence I made only a little (plenty of other side dishes).

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© Red Cabbage and Apples.

Thinly slice ½ a red cabbage and toss it with thick slices of peeled apples. Let sit in a bowl covered in water acidulated with lemon juice. This stops the apples from browning and keeps the cabbage bright when cooking. After an hour or so, drain the apple-cabbage mixture and place in a stainless steel pan over medium heat. Add a knob of butter and a dusting of powdered cloves. Let cook gently for 10 to 15 minutes. You want the cabbage to retain some crunchiness. Serve in a heated bowl as a side dish for any fatty meat such as goose or pork.

Sep 182013
 

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Today is the birthday (1709) of Samuel Johnson, English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor, and dictionary writer.

Johnson was born in Lichfield, Staffordshire and attended Pembroke College, Oxford for just over a year, before his lack of funds forced him to leave. After working as a teacher he moved to London, where he began to write for The Gentleman’s Magazine. His early works include the biography The Life of Richard Savage, the poems “London” and “The Vanity of Human Wishes”, and the play Irene. After nine years of work, Johnson’s A Dictionary of the English Language was published in 1755. It had a far-reaching effect on Modern English and has been described as “one of the greatest single achievements of scholarship.” This work brought Johnson popularity and success. Until the completion of the Oxford English Dictionary 150 years later, Johnson’s was viewed as the pre-eminent British dictionary.

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Johnson’s later works included essays, an influential annotated edition of William Shakespeare’s plays, and the widely read tale Rasselas. In 1763, he befriended James Boswell, with whom he later traveled to Scotland, which he described in A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland. Towards the end of his life, he produced the massive and influential Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets, a collection of biographies and evaluations of 17th- and 18th-century poets.

Johnson had a tall and robust figure. His odd gestures and tics were confusing to some on their first encounter with him. Boswell’s biography, Life of Samuel Johnson, documented Johnson’s behavior and mannerisms in such detail that they have led to a posthumous diagnosis of Tourette syndrome, a condition not recognized in the 18th century. After a series of illnesses he died on the evening of 13 December 1784, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. In the years following his death, Johnson began to be recognized as having had a lasting effect on English literature and language.

Young Johnson's odd gestures

Young Johnson’s odd gestures

I’d like to focus on two aspects of Johnson’s life. First, his time at Pembroke College for no other reason than that I went to Pembroke as an undergraduate where he was lionized.  His tea mug sat on a plinth in the senior common room.  Second, I’d like to ramble on a bit about his dictionary.

Outside my old rooms at Pembroke.

Outside my old rooms at Pembroke.

On 31 October 1728, a few weeks after he turned 19, Johnson entered Pembroke College, arriving on horseback from Lichfield with over 100 books. He had a small inheritance from one of his mother’s cousins  that covered part of his expenses for the first year. Andrew Corbet, a friend and fellow student at Pembroke, offered to make up the deficit. Even so, after 13 months lack of funds led him to leave and seek work.  His limited time at the college was the source of a great many stories when I was an undergraduate.  His uneven study habits were well known, for example, and his former room, a garret in the entrance tower, was still being used by undergraduates. Even in the 1970’s it was considered an undesirable location. The photograph below shows the location (top floor).

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Professor Lynda Mugglestone , fellow and tutor in English at Pembroke (the same position held by J.R.R. Tolkein), gave a speech at the college concerning Johnson’s undergraduate years, at a celebration to mark the 300th anniversary of his birth in 2009. The following paragraphs are excerpted from her remarks.  The complete version can be found at this link

. . . the success of Johnson’s scholarship – even by the age of nineteen – was apparently evident within the first few hours of him being in the college. Here his weight of learning was confirmed not only by the consignment of books he had brought with him (which all had to be deposited in the garret-like room at the top of a tower where he would live), but also by his willingness to introduce the subject of Macrobius into conversation when in the rooms of his tutor, William Jordan, together with a number of other undergraduates and Fellows in October 1728. Familiarity with Macrobius, a 5th C Latin writer and philosopher, was by no means part of the expected intellectual background of a student who was about to begin a degree. It was, as Robert Adams (later master of Pembroke but then a young Fellow of the College), a defining moment which clearly – and very swiftly – established Johnson as, ‘the best qualified of any undergraduate to be admitted to the university’.

A glorious academic career seemed about to materialise. Why it didn’t – and why Johnson was being fined within his first week in the college (for truanting from his tutor’s lectures who was ‘no scholar’ as Johnson promptly judged him) is a different – and perhaps a more interesting story. To study, as Johnson later revealingly noted, is both ‘to think with very close application’, as well as ‘to muse’ -while one definition suggests diligence and industry, the other conveys something less focussed, if equally thoughtful in other ways. The life of a commoner student at Pembroke, very definitely required the former – discipline, rigour, consistent application and performance. Modern students might indeed be appalled at the requirements Johnson had to meet, beginning with compulsory prayers at six in the morning (and a fine if you were absent), and followed immediately by classes and study until breakfast at eight; on Monday, Wednesdays, and Fridays, this was followed by compulsory classes in Natural Philosophy.

One of the essay titles set during Johnson’s time at Pembroke was the undoubtedly improving one – at least in precept and intention — of ‘Get up early if you want to write a good essay’ – the good essay in question moreover had to be written in fluent and impeccable Latin, and publicly declaimed in the college hall, in front of all the other undergraduates and fellows. Weekend is not a word recorded in Johnson’s dictionary – indeed, a weekday, in the customs of the 18thC is, as Johnson does note ‘any day except Sunday’. True to form here then, the working week in Pembroke in fact began on Saturday, and it was on this day when the declamations of the week’s essays took place – in Latin, and in the Hall. It was to be something which could torment Johnson’s sense of academic worth. For example, he always had to make sure he was out of ear-shot when the highly able Meeke – later a Fellow of the College – declaimed. The sense that Meeke excelled more than he did could provoke the torments of rivalry – and the depressing sense of failure (and in turn the ‘melancholy’ which Johnson would of course suffer at times throughout his life).

Johnson’s life at Pembroke was something of an enigma.  On the one hand, he clearly read widely and produced brilliant work. For example, he was asked by his tutor to produce a Latin translation of Alexander Pope’s Messiah as a Christmas exercise. Johnson completed half of the translation in one afternoon and the rest the following morning. It later appeared in Miscellany of Poems (1731), edited by John Husbands, a Pembroke tutor, and is the earliest surviving publication of any of Johnson’s writings. On the other hand, he was frequently fined for not attending compulsory lectures, and was known for reading just about everything except the assigned readings.  He could also be found often in the college gate entertaining other “loungers” with his wit instead of studying.

The Hall, where Johnson (and I) ate.

The Hall, where Johnson (and I) ate

It is usually remarked that Johnson left the college after 13 months, penniless, with broken shoes and shabby clothes.  But this is not really the whole story.  The college battel books, accounts of student expenditures on food and drink (still keep in ledgers by hand in my day), show that Johnson constantly lived well above the average means, with no apparent concern for his dwindling funds.  Furthermore, he need not have left when the money ran out.  There were menial positions that he could have accepted, such as servitor, which would have required him to shave and dress the richer students and wait on them at meal times, but which would have paid his way.  Johnson’s pride, however, coupled with his embarrassment at his social position would not allow him to do this, and so he left, leaving behind most of his books as a sign that he intended to return.  He was eventually awarded a degree after the publication of his dictionary.

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His dictionary may be his most widely known work.  In 1746, a group of publishers approached Johnson about creating an authoritative dictionary of the English language; a contract with William Strahan and associates, worth 1,500 guineas, a substantial sum, was signed on the morning of 18 June 1746. Johnson claimed that he could finish the project in three years. In comparison, the Académie Française had forty scholars spending forty years to complete its dictionary, which prompted Johnson to claim, “This is the proportion. Let me see; forty times forty is sixteen hundred. As three to sixteen hundred, so is the proportion of an Englishman to a Frenchman.” Although he did not succeed in completing the work in three years, he did manage to finish it in nine, justifying his boast.

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Johnson’s dictionary was not the first, nor was it unique. It was, however, the most commonly used and imitated for the 150 years between its first publication and the completion of the Oxford English Dictionary in 1928. Other dictionaries, such as Nathan Bailey’s Dictionarium Britannicum, included more words, and in the 150 years preceding Johnson’s dictionary about twenty other general-purpose monolingual English dictionaries had been produced. However, there was open dissatisfaction with the dictionaries of the period. In 1741, David Hume claimed: “The Elegance and Propriety of Stile have been very much neglected among us. We have no Dictionary of our Language, and scarce a tolerable Grammar.” Johnson’s became the definitive English dictionary.

Generally the dictionary is sober and measured in tone and scholarship.  But once in a while Johnson let his wit get the better of him in his definitions.  Here are some of the more well known of these:

Cough: A convulsion of the lungs, vellicated by some sharp serosity.

Distiller: One who makes and sells pernicious and inflammatory spirits.

Dull: Not exhilaterating (sic); not delightful; as, to make dictionaries is dull work.

Excise: A hateful tax levied upon commodities, and adjudged not by the common judges of property, but wretches hired by those to whom excise is paid.

Far-fetch: A deep stratagem. A ludicrous word.

Jobbernowl: Loggerhead; blockhead.

Kickshaw: A dish so changed by the cookery that it can scarcely be known.

Lexicographer: A writer of dictionaries; a harmless drudge that busies himself in tracing the original, and detailing the signification of words.

Network: Any thing reticulated or decussated, at equal distances, with interstices between the intersections. (See how he defined ‘reticulated,’ below.)

Oats: A grain, which in England is generally given to horses, but in Scotland appears to support the people.

Pastern: The knee of a horse. (This is actually incorrect. When Johnson was once asked how he came to make such a mistake, Boswell tells us he replied, “Ignorance, Madam, pure ignorance.”)

Patron: One who countenances, supports or protects. Commonly a wretch who supports with insolence, and is paid with flattery.

Pension: An allowance made to any one without an equivalent. In England it is generally understood to mean pay given to a state hireling for treason to his country.

Politician: 1. One versed in the arts of government; one skilled in politicks. 2. A man of artifice; one of deep contrivance.

Reticulated: Made of network; formed with interstitial vacuities. (See “network” above)

Tory: One who adheres to the ancient constitution of the state, and the apostolical hierarchy of the church of England, opposed to a Whig. (Johnson was a confirmed Tory and Anglican)

Whig: The name of a faction.

To worm: To deprive a dog of something, nobody knows what, under his tongue, which is said to prevent him, nobody knows why, from running mad.

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[In case you are under the false impression that Johnson was the only humorous lexicographer (a term he coined, by the way), consider Chambers Dictionary definition of “éclair” (“a cake, long in shape but short in duration”)]

Because of his universally well known definition of oats I have decided to include a recipe that features oats: apple crumble.  This is a “pudding” that my mother made often on Sundays when I was a boy, and which I loved. It is great hot served with hot custard, and equally wonderful cold the next day with lashings of heavy cream.  It has become very popular in England in recent years, but restaurants tend to make it much too fancy with, what I consider, unnecessary ingredients. A perfect apple crumble is nothing more than baked, sliced, sweetened apples topped with a generous layer of crisply browned oats, flour, sugar, and butter.  You can use brown sugar for the apples and toppings, but I find that white sugar produces a cleaner taste, with no added spices or seasonings of any sort.

I am going to give you my, tried and true, recipe from memory, and so it will not be in conventional recipe form, but in basic ratios.  I use a 12x6x6 inch rectangular casserole (given to me on my 21st birthday by my best friend when I was at Pembroke). I stack layers of peeled, cored, and sliced baking apples in the casserole until it is ¾ full, sprinkling a small amount of sugar on each layer as I go.  The topping I make in a food processor using a ratio of two parts oats, two parts all purpose flour, 1 part white sugar, and 1 part butter (chilled and coarsely diced).  I pulse the mix until it is evenly mixed (maybe 8 to 10 pulses). I use enough so that the topping will spread evenly over the apples and mound slightly higher than then top of the casserole (it will shrink in baking). Dot the top with butter. Put on the middle rack of a pre-heated 375°F oven until the apples are merrily bubbling and the topping is browned evenly. I have no idea how long this takes – maybe 40 minutes.

Serves 1 in my house.

I do not have my own picture but this one comes close.  My topping is a little browner and coarser.

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